Background: The sleep-wake cycle of students varies significantly between the type of professional student and several factors including attitudes and academic overload have been identified as causative factors. The consequences of sleep problems can be serious and associated with deficits in attention, academic performance, drowsy driving, risk-taking behavior, and poor health.
Aim: To assess the quality of sleep among final MBBS and final-year engineering students.
Materials and methodology: The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted in Father Muller Medical College Hospital, Mangaluru, Karnataka. A total of 136 medical undergraduates and 135 engineering undergraduates were given self-rated Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) along with sociodemographic pro forma. The results were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, and Chi-square.
Results: The study revealed that the PSQI Global Total Score (subjective sleep quality, daytime dysfunction, sleep latency) among MBBS and engineering students had a statistically significant difference. However, there was no association between PSQI global score categories among final-year engineering and MBBS students.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that the quality of sleep is poor among medical students as compared to non-medical (engineering) students. There is a need for the management of sleep quality among college students to improve their occupational, educational, and familial lives.
Clinical significance: There is a need for prompt detection and management of sleep quality in college students so that they might be able to cope with the social and psychological problems in their occupational, educational, and familial lives.
HP S Sogi,
Aim: To review various comprehensive centers on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), highlighting the valuable role that oral appliances can play in managing this disorder.
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an emerging medical condition that is attracting the interest of healthcare experts. This ailment has been found to impact a considerable portion, approximately 20%, of the population. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of breathing cessation during sleep, followed by brief awakenings. Sleep disorders can significantly impact children's sleep quality among which OSA is the most prevalent. Enlargement of the tonsil stands as one of the primary causes of SDB in children. Surgical removal of the tonsils often serves as an effective treatment for SDB.
Results: The correction of tongue thrusting, speech-related concerns, and abnormal swallowing patterns often necessitates speech therapy, particularly myofunctional therapy. For older children, an occlusal splint can be provided to mitigate bruxism. Various mandibular advancement (MA) appliances are available to prevent or reduce upper airway collapse during sleep. These devices have proven effective in managing the condition OSA for patients who are unable to tolerate surgical interventions.
Conclusion: Dentists are gaining a growing awareness of the significance of SDB and their involvement in treating this condition using oral appliances. Their unique access to examining the oral cavity positions dentists to play an active role in identifying children with enlarged tonsils and referring them for sleep evaluations.
Clinical significance: Dentists, among the healthcare professionals involved in the care of children, are often well-positioned to identify cases of adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Consequently, dentists can play a vital role in recognizing and managing such cases through the use of oral appliances. This becomes particularly relevant for patients who decline surgical options or those with structural abnormalities that can benefit from myofunctional appliances.
A 78-year-old male patient was referred with a history of snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness for 3 years. The patient was diagnosed case of Acromegaly due to pituitary microadenoma. He was evaluated with polysomnography, which confirmed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone in adults. They have a high prevalence of OSAS which often goes undiagnosed. We report one such case of OSAS in a diagnosed case of Acromegaly.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) diagnosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is an ignored comorbidity. While excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) patients are diagnosed and treated early, delayed diagnosis in non-EDS patients may lead to adverse outcomes, especially in the form of cardiovascular events. The conventional questionnaires make use of EDS and thus become nugatory in non-EDS patients. Submental ultrasound has proven beneficial for screening for OSA as well as directing its management and monitoring of treatment.