[Year:2022] [Month:January-March] [Volume:17] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:10 - 14]
Background: Syndrome Z is the coexistence of two chronic diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome. It is one of the under-recognized public health issues in the Indian subcontinent. Syndrome Z is associated with multiple risk factors and cardiometabolic abnormality, which increases its severity. In this study, we assess anthropometric indices and OSA severity in patients with syndrome Z.
Materials and methods: We evaluated 100 patients aged more than 50 years in chest outpatient department (OPD), who met the screening criteria for OSA using the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, Blood pressure, Body mass index (BMI), Age, Neck size, and Gender (STOPBANG) Questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). All patients underwent overnight level 1 polysomnography (PSG) using Alice 6 PDx Philips Sleep System. Parameters of metabolic syndrome and OSA were noted using National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III) and American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guidelines. We did a comparative study using baseline anthropometric indices, metabolic syndrome parameters, and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) level in PSG in patients with syndrome Z and OSA using various correlations.
Results: Syndrome Z was present in 60% of patients with OSA. Among syndrome Z patients, male subjects were 60% and female subjects were 40%. OSA was severer in patients with syndrome Z, i.e., AHI levels in the PSG were higher in patients having both OSA and metabolic syndrome (p <0.001). Other parameters that were found to be associated in patients with syndrome Z were higher BMI, larger waist circumference (p <0.003), deranged lipid profile, hyperglycemia (p <0.001), and hypertension (p <0.001).
Conclusion: Anthropometric indices, obesity (BMI), parameters of metabolic syndrome, and AHI level should be a part of routine checkups in follow-ups of patients with syndrome Z, which will help in better management. Treating each factor individually can increase the quality of life and decrease the morbidity associated with syndrome Z.