Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

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2017 | April-June | Volume 12 | Issue 2

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Rohit K Pradhan, N Sinha

Level of Alpha Amylase Activity in Human Saliva as Noninvasive Biochemical Marker of Sleep Deprivation

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1 - 6]

Keywords: Adolescents, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Salivary alpha amylase, Sleep deprivation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0001  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Every section of our round-the-clock society is plagued with the problem of sleep deprivation. Genetic studies conducted on lower organism have revealed that the measurement of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels could be a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for the assessment of sleepiness in human beings. But the reports at population level are still lacking. The present study was conducted longitudinally over a period of 2 years and was targeted upon the adolescent school-going students whose sleep requirements and obtained sleep duration differs widely due to school timings, assignments, and social activities. Totally, 168 healthy school-going adolescents studying in ninth grade were selected randomly from morning shift (n = 84) and dayshift (n = 84) schools. The study encompassed administration of questionnaire and collection of saliva samples from the participants. Salivary alpha amylase activity was estimated spectrophotometrically and statistical analysis was performed in order to determine its association with sleep duration and sleepiness level. Findings reveal that sAA could be the most appropriate noninvasive biochemical marker for the objective assessment of sleep deprivation among individuals as well as at population level.



Madhumita Kumar, Uttumadathil G Unnikrishnan

Correlation of Body Habitus with Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Prospective Study from a Single Institution

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:7 - 11]

Keywords: Apnea-hypopnea index, Body mass index, Neck circumference, Obstructive sleep apnea

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0002  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objectives: To correlate body habitus with severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in Indian subjects. Subjects: Prospective study. Consecutive patients with OSA during the period 2013 to 2016 were included. Materials and methods: Body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were recorded and their association with severity of OSA as graded by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was analyzed Results: Totally 100 patients were included; 91 were male. Mean age was 46.58 ± 12.92 years. Abnormal BMI, NC, and ESS were observed in 67.3, 33.6 and 52.7% respectively. Moderate and severe forms of OSA were found in 26 and 54% respectively. Severe OSA was more common in men (56 vs 33.3%; p = 0.15). There was a strong correlation of OSA with BMI (r = 0.378; p < 0.001), NC (r = 0.502; p < 0.001), and ESS (r = 0.304; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea in Indian patients has strong correlation with male sex and indices of body habitus.



Racheal Fernandes, Preeti Devnani

Role of Sleep in Memory

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:12 - 14]

Keywords: Memory formation, Sleep deprivation and memory

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0003  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Sleep is essential to our survival. The various stages of sleep play a significant role in brain maturation. Memory is an important essential feature of the human brain. Memory is information that is encoded, retained, and recalled. This review summarizes various subtypes of memory and provides insight into the role of sleep in the formation of memory and the impact of sleep deprivation.



Manas K Sen

Drug-induced Sleep Endoscopy

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:15 - 20]

Keywords: Drug-induced sleep endoscopy, Endoscopy, Obstructive sleep apnea, Sedation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0004  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder with significant associated morbidity. Though continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been the treatment of choice, it has poor acceptability. Alternative therapies include surgery or oral appliances. A meticulous assessment of the airway is needed before these alternative therapies can be tailored to their specific needs. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) provides a detailed visual description of the sites of upper airway obstruction and may conclusively lead to a better choice of therapy resulting in the wider use of this endoscopic examination in dedicated sleep centers. This review discusses the indication, procedure, and the controversies regarding DISE.



A Ghabeli Joubari, Fariborz R Talab, M Akbari Rad, Abdollah Firoozi

Obstructive Sleep Apnea as the Initial Manifestation of Acromegaly

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:21 - 23]

Keywords: Acromegaly, Sleep apnea, Sleep-disordered breathing

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0005  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the most common type of sleep disorder, a chronic condition characterized by frequent episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. There are serious complications associated with this condition, varying from different respiratory complications, neuropsychiatric disturbances to increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. The OSAS frequently occurs in acromegaly patients with a high prevalence rate of 20 to 50%. The symptoms of sleep apnea, including snoring, tiredness, and excessive daytime sleepiness, are often reversible with an appropriate treatment strategy. We report here a middle-aged woman with excessive snoring and severe headaches caused by sleep apnea as a first sign, years before definite diagnosis of acromegaly.



R Gupta, S Jehan, E Auguste, F Zizi, SR Pandi-Perumal, H Attarian, G Jean-Louis, SI McFarlane

Journal Scan

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:24 - 31]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0006  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The main characteristics of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are airflow limitation, chronic intermittent hypoxia, or apnea, which may lead to tissue hypoperfusion and recurrent arousal from sleep. These episodes of hypoxia or apnea can lead to tissue inflammation and are causal factors of disturbed sleep in both men and women. Several lines of evidence suggest that sleep patterns differ along the lifespan in both male and female subjects, and this may result from the influence of female gonadotropic hormones on sleep. Compared with men, women have more sleep complaints, as women's sleep is not only influenced by gonadotropins, but also by conditions related to these hormones, such as pregnancy. It is therefore, not surprising that sleep disturbances are seen during menopause too. Factors that may play a role in this type of SDB in women include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle factors. Conflict of interest statement: DISCLOSURE STATEMENT The authors have read the journal's policy and have the following potential conflicts: This study was not an industry-supported study. S.R. Pandi-Perumal is a stockholder and the President and Chief Executive Officer of Somnogen Canada Inc., a Canadian Corporation. This does not alter his adherence to all of the journal policies. He declares that he has no competing interests that might be perceived to influence the content of this article. All remaining authors declare that they have no proprietary, financial, professional, nor any other personal interest of any nature or kind in any product or services and/or company that could be construed or considered to be a potential conflict of interest that might have influenced the views expressed in this manuscript.


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