Citation Information :
Fatima R, Fatima A, Khan SA, Miriyala SA, Srilakshmi K, Rishika M, Mohan Y, Mall M, Khatri A, Burney W, Aqeel N. Comprehensive Overview on Sleep. Indian Sleep Med 2023; 18 (2):29-36.
The circadian rhythm mediated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus is primarily responsible for maintaining the sleep and wakefulness states. Numerous physiologic mechanisms and bodily repairs occur during the state of sleep along with functional alterations in both the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. Most individuals cycle through three stages of nonrapid eye movement sleep, accounting for about 75% of total sleep duration, followed by rapid eye movement sleep, which makes up the remaining 25%. Besides the above, endocrine factors like the release of melatonin from the pineal gland also have a significant impact on the initiation and maintenance of sleep phases. The emotional factors and the limbic system in association with a multitude of variables like stress, drugs, substance use like alcohol, appetite, and behavioral patterns are known to modulate a typical sleep cycle. Given below is a detailed review of normal sleep physiology and numerous sleep-related disorders, their risk factors along with their management, and a brief description of all factors that influence as well as alter the neuronal signaling processes of the brain.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research; Colten HR, Altevogt BM, editors. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006. 2, Sleep Physiology. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19956/.
Besedovsky L, Lange T, Born J. Sleep and immune function. Pflugers Arch 2012;463(1):121–137. DOI: 10.1007/s00424-011-1044-0.
Haus E. Chronobiology in the endocrine system. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2007;59(9–10):985–1014. DOI: 10.1016/j.addr.2007.01.001.
Reis ES, Lange T, Köhl G, et al. Sleep and circadian rhythm regulate circulating complement factors and immunoregulatory properties of C5a. Brain Behav Immun 2011;25(7):1416–1426. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2011.04.011.
AlDabal L, BaHammam AS. Metabolic, endocrine, and immune consequences of sleep deprivation. Open Respir Med J 2011;5:31–43. DOI: 10.2174/1874306401105010031.
Goldstein AN, Walker MP. The role of sleep in emotional brain function. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2014;10:679–708. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153716.
Barion A, Zee PC. A clinical approach to circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Sleep Med 2007;8(6):566–577. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2006. 11.017.
Roehrs TA, Roth T. Sleep disturbance in substance use disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2015;38(4):793–803. DOI: 10.1016/j.psc.2015.07.008.
Nagai M, Hoshide S, Kario K. Sleep duration as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease – A review of the recent literature. Curr Cardiol Rev 2010;6(1):54–61. DOI: 10.2174/157340310790231635.
Dunn N, Wang S, Adigun R. African trypanosomiasis. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519580/.
Kurahashi H, Hirose S. Autosomal dominant sleep-related hypermotor (hyperkinetic) epilepsy 2002. In: Adam MP, Mirzaa GM, Pagon RA, et al., editors. GeneReviews®. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993–2023. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1169/.
Kroese FM, Nauts S, Kamphorst BA, et al. Bedtime procrastination: A behavioral perspective on sleep insufficiency. Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being 2016:93–119. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-802862-9.00005-0.
O'Callaghan F, Muurlink O, Reid N. Effects of caffeine on sleep quality and daytime functioning. Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2018;11:263–271. DOI: 10.2147/RMHP.S156404.
Mirabile VS, Sharma S. Cataplexy. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549782/.
Slowik JM, Collen JF, Yow AG. Narcolepsy. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 [Updated June 12, 2023]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459236.
Shetty S, Pitti V, Satish Babu CL, et al. Bruxism: A literature review. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2010;10(3):141–148. DOI: 10.1007/s13191-011-0041-5.
Osman AM, Carter SG, Carberry JC, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea: Current perspectives. Nat Sci Sleep 2018;10:21–34. DOI: 10.2147/NSS.S124657.
Irfan M, Schenck CH, Howell MJ. NonREM disorders of arousal and related parasomnias: An updated review. Neurotherapeutics 2021;18(1):124–139. DOI: 10.1007/s13311-021-01011-y.
Nakayama M, Nakano N, Mihara T, et al. Two cases of exploding head syndrome documented by polysomnography that improved after treatment. J Clin Sleep Med;17(1):103–106. DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.8790.
Ramdurg S. Kleine–Levin syndrome: Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2010;13(4):241–246. DOI: 10.4103/0972-2327.74185.
Suresh Kumar PN, Sajithlal E, Shamsudeen M, et al. Morvan's syndrome presenting with psychiatric manifestations – A case report and review of the literature. Neurol India 2022;70(3):1207–1209. DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.349616.
Gomez Rincon M, Leslie SW, Lotfollahzadeh S. Nocturnal Enuresis. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545181/.
Parasomnias: Types, symptoms, and causes. Sleep Foundation; 2023. Available from: https://www.sleepfoundation.org/parasomnias.
How blue light affects your sleep. Sleepopolis; 2023 [accessed July 17, 2023]. https://sleepopolis.com/education/blue-light/.
St. Louis EK, Boeve BF. REM sleep behavior disorder: Diagnosis, clinical implications, and future directions. Mayo Clin Proc 2017;92(11):1723–1736. DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.09.007.
Bharadwaj R, Kumar S. Somnambulism: Diagnosis and treatment. Indian J Psychiatry 2007;49(2):123–125. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.33261.
Singh S, Kaur H, Singh S, et al. Parasomnias: A comprehensive review. Cureus 2018;10(12):e3807. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.3807.
Duncan JR, Byard RW. Sudden infant death syndrome: An Overview. In: Duncan JR, Byard RW, editors. SIDS Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death: The Past, the Present and the Future, chapter 2. Adelaide (AU): University of Adelaide Press; 2018. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513399/.
Bassetti CLA, Adamantidis A, Burdakov D, et al. Narcolepsy – clinical spectrum, aetiopathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Neurol 2019;15(9):519–539. DOI: 10.1038/s41582-019-0226-9.
Barker EC, Flygare J, Paruthi S, et al. Living with narcolepsy: Current management strategies, future prospects, and overlooked real-life concerns. Nat Sci Sleep 2020;12:453–466. DOI: 10.2147/NSS.S162762.