Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2014 ) > List of Articles


Two-Process Model of Sleep

Deepti Vibha, Garima Shukla

Citation Information : Vibha D, Shukla G. Two-Process Model of Sleep. Indian Sleep Med 2014; 9 (3):91-95.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-0155.2014.01108.5

License: NA

Published Online: 01-03-2018

Copyright Statement:  NA


The intricate interplay between circadian and ultradian processes and rhythms that determine sleepiness and wakefulness in normal human adults has been widely studied and has been excellently presented in the form of mathematical models interweaving homeostatic, circadian, and ultradian processes. The evolution of knowledge about these and the clinical applications of this view about sleep regulationhave been discussed in this review.

PDF Share
  1. Borbély AA. A two process model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol 1982;1(3):195–204.
  2. Daan S, Beersma DG, Borbély AA. Timing of human sleep: recovery process gated by a circadian pacemaker. Am J Physiol 1984;246(2 Pt 2):R161–R183.
  3. Achermann P, Dijk DJ, Brunner DP, Borbély AA. A model of human sleep homeostasis based on EEG slow-wave activity: quantitative comparison of data and simulations. Brain Res Bull 1993;31(1-2):97–113.
  4. Van Dongen HPA, Dinges DF. Investigating the interaction between the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleepwake regulation for the prediction of waking neurobehavioural performance. J Sleep Res 2003;12(3):181–187.
  5. Borbély AA. Refining sleep homeostasis in the two-process model. J Sleep Res 2009;18(1):1–2.
  6. Franken P, Dijk DJ, Tobler I, Borbély AA. Sleep deprivation in rats: effects on EEG power spectra, vigilance states, and cortical temperature. Am J Physiol 1991;261(1 Pt 2):R198– R208.
  7. Achermann P, Borbély AA. Mathematical models of sleep regulation. Front Biosci 2003;8:s683–s693.
  8. Collop NA, Salas RE, Delayo M, Gamaldo C. Normal sleep and circadian processes. Crit Care Clin 2008;24(3):449– 460.
  9. Carskadon MA, Dement WC. Multiple sleep latency tests during the constant routine. Sleep 1992;15(5):396–399.
  10. Durmer JS, Dinges DF. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin Neurol 2005;25(1):117–129.
  11. Akerstedt T. Sleep/wake disturbances in working life. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol Suppl 1987;39:360–363.
  12. Bonnet MH, Arand DL. 24-Hour metabolic rate in insomniacs and matched normal sleepers. Sleep 1995;18(7):581–588.
  13. Bonnet MH, Arand DL. The consequences of a week of insomnia. Sleep 1996;19(6):453–461.
  14. Folkard S, Akerstedt T. Towards a model for the prediction of alertness and/or fatigue on different sleep/wake schedules. In: Oginski A, Polorski J, Rutenfranz J(eds.)Contemporary Advances in Shiftwork Research: Theoretical and Practical Aspects in the Late Eighties. Krakow, Poland: Medical Academy, 1987, pp. 231–240.
  15. Zavada A, Strijkstra AM, Boerema AS, Daan S, Beersma DGM. Evidence for differential human slow-wave activity regulation across the brain. J Sleep Res 2009;18(1):3–10.
  16. Pittendrigh CS, Daan S. Circadian oscillations in rodents: a systematic increase of their frequency with age. Science 1974;186(4163):548–550.
  17. Kronauer R. A quantitative model for the effects of light on the amplitude and phase of the deep circadian pacemaker, based on human data. In: Horne J(ed.)Sleep. Bochum, Germany: Pontenagel Press, 1990, pp. 306–309.
  18. Beersma DG, Daan S. Generation of activity-rest patterns by dual circadian pacemaker systems: a model. J Sleep Res 1992;1(2):84–87.
  19. Stephan FK, Zucker I. Circadian rhythms in drinking behavior and locomotor activity of rats are eliminated by hypothalamic lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1972;69(6):1583–1586.
  20. Moore RY. Retinohypothalamic projection in mammals: a comparative study. Brain Res 1973;49(2):403–409.
  21. Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Effect of light on human circadian physiology. Sleep Med Clin 2009;4(2):165–177.
  22. Rajaraman S, Gribok AV, Wesensten NJ, Balkin TJ, Reifman J. An improved methodology for individualized performance prediction of sleep-deprived individuals with the two-process model. Sleep 2009;32(10):1377–1392.
  23. Sack RL, Auckley D, Auger RR, et al. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep 2007;30(11):1460–1483.
  24. Dijk DJ, Czeisler CA. Paradoxical timing of the circadian rhythm of sleep propensity serves to consolidate sleep and wakefulness in humans. Neurosci Lett 1994;166(1):63– 68.
  25. Dijk D, Groeger JA, Stanley N, Deacon S. Age-related reduction in daytime sleep propensity and nocturnal slow wave sleep. Sleep 2010;33(2):211–223.
  26. Van Dongen HPA, Mott CG, Huang J, et al. Optimization of biomathematical model predictions for cognitive performance impairment in individuals: accounting for unknown traits and uncertain states in homeostatic and circadian processes. Sleep 2007;30(9):1129–1143.
  27. Rajaraman S, Gribok AV, Wesensten NJ, Balkin TJ, Reifman J. Individualized performance prediction of sleep-deprived individuals with the two-process model. J Appl Physiol 2008;104(2):459–468.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.