Restless legs syndrome (RLS) or Willis–Ekbom disease is a common yet an underrecognized disease despite the fact that awareness is the only equipment required to diagnose this condition. The RLS is diagnosed with four essential criteria that can be abbreviated as “URGE,” that is, urge to move, rest induced, gets better with activity, and evening and night accentuation. Periodic limb movementsduring sleep (PLMS), a component of RLS, in 90% cases needs to be differentiated from RLS as PLMS may also be seen with disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea, upper airway resistance syndrome, narcolepsy, and rapid eye movement sleep disorder in 70% cases. Diagnosis of PLMS contrary to RLS requires sleep study. This review was aimed at increasing awareness about RLS; differentiating RLS from PLMS; and pathogenesis, management options, and recent advances for RLS.
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