Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

Register      Login

VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2013 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Observational study of sleep patterns in industrial workers employed in the Organised Sector

D Gothi, R Gupta, U. C. Ojha, RS Pal, N Saxena, SK Raju, C Omkar

Keywords : Sleep disturbance, Organised sector, Insomnia.

Citation Information : Gothi D, Gupta R, Ojha UC, Pal R, Saxena N, Raju S, Omkar C. Observational study of sleep patterns in industrial workers employed in the Organised Sector. Indian Sleep Med 2013; 8 (2):82-92.

DOI: 10.5958/j.0974-0155.8.2.012

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Introduction: Industrial workers are exposed to various aspects of sleep deprivation resulting into accidents and other morbidities. This pilot survey was done to see the status of sleep and other effects in the organized sector industrial population of India. Objective: Paucity of data from our country in organized sector from a social security scheme ESIC (Employees State Insurance Corporation) on this important but neglected topic prompted us to conduct this study. Methodology: Observational questionnaire based study. Results: This questionnaire-based survey of non-shift organized factory workers (N=179; male - 65, female-114, age ranging from 21 to 68 years) revealed that two-thirds of this study population was suffering from some type of sleep-related disorder. Snoring was found to be significantly associated with day time tiredness (p=0.016) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (p=0.0035). Workers with frightening dreams were significantly suffering from EDS [out of 9 (5.03%) subjects with frightening dreams, 5 had EDS (p=0.041)]. Grinding teeth during sleep was significantly associated with snoring (out of 11 (6.15%) of the subjects who has bruxism, 7 (63.64%) reported to have snoring (p=0.003)). Bruxism was also associated with EDS significantly (EDS was present in 9 (81.82%) p=0.00006). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first such sleep survey of workers who are earning there monthly wages < Rs.15000. The findings of the study clearly outlines that despite normal body weight /body mass index ; sleep related breathing disorders and other sleep ailments are a genuine problem. Effect on day time activity; because of sleep, has a great bearing in the industrial production and harmony between workers and supervisors of the industrial population. Thus this could be a starting point in translational research to be undertaken in this nascent field amongst this susceptible and vulnerable population. Considering the large population of our country these data are substantial and triggers the need for increasing the awareness, among the patients as well as health professionals, about this neglected but very significant medical health problem which leads to development of several other medical diseases


PDF Share
  1. Burgard S, Ailshire J. Putting work to bed: stressful experiences on the job and sleep quality. Population Studies Center research report 08-652. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan ; 2008. Available at http:// www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr08-652.pdf.
  2. Doghramji K. Assessment of excessive sleepiness and insomnia as they relate to circadian rhythm sleep disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65 S 16:17-22.
  3. Culpepper L. The social and economic burden of shiftwork disorder. J Fam Pract. 2010 ; 59:S3-S11.
  4. Rameshbabu A, Reddy DM, Fleming R. Correlates of negative physical health in call center shift workers. Appl Ergon. 2013;44(3):350-4.
  5. Morikawa Y, Sakurai M, Nakamura K, Nagasawa SY, Ishizaki M, Kido T, Naruse Y, Nakagawa H. Correlation between shift-work-related sleep problems and heavy drinking in Japanese male factory workers. Alcohol Alcohol. 2013;48(2):202-6.
  6. Panda S, Taly AB, Sinha S, Gururaj G, Girish N, Nagaraja D. Sleep-related disorders among a healthy population in South India. Neurol India, 2012;60:68-74.
  7. Douglass AB, Bornstein R,Nino-Murcia G, Keenan S, Miles L, Zarcon VP Jr. The Sleep Disorders Questionnaire. I: Creation and multivariate structure of SDQ. Sleep 1994;17:160-7
  8. H Bearpark, L Elliott, R Grunstein, S Cullen, H Schneider, W Althaus, and C Sullivan “Snoring and sleep apnea. A population study in Australian men.” Am J Respir Crit Care Med,1995;151;(51)459-65.
  9. Adewole OO, Adeyemo H, Ayeni F, Anteyi EA, Ajuwon ZO, Erhabor GE, Adewole TT. Prevalence and correlates of snoring among adults in Nigeria: Afr Health Sci,2008; 8(2):108-13.
  10. Levendowski DJ, Morgan T, Montague J, Melzer V, Berka C, Westbrook PR. Prevalence of probable obstructive sleep apnea risk and severity in a population of dental patients. Sleep Breath, 2008;12(4):303-9.
  11. Bearpark H, Elliott L, Grunstein R, et al. Snoring and sleep apnea. A population study in Australian men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 1995;151:1459-65.
  12. Grunstein RR, Philips CL. Obstructive sleep apnoea getting to the heart of the matter?. MJA, 2008;188(6):324-25.
  13. Young T, Peppard PE, Gottlieb DJ. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea – a population health perspective. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2002;165:1217-39.
  14. Adewole OO, Adeyemo H, Ayeni F, Anteyi EA, Ajuwon ZO, Erhabor GE, Adewole TT. Prevalence and correlates of snoring among adults in Nigeria: Afr Health Sci, 2008;8(2):108-13.
  15. Levendowski DJ, Morgan T, Montague J, Melzer V, Berka C, Westbrook PR. Prevalence of probable obstructive sleep apnea risk and severity in a population of dental patients.,Sleep Breath, 2008;12(4):303-9
  16. Jennum P, Riha RL. Epidemiology of sleep apnoea/ hypopnoea syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing. Eur Respir J. 2009;33:907-914.
  17. Davies RJO, Stradling JR. The epidemiology of sleep apnea. Thorax 1996;51:S65-S70.
  18. Lindberg E, Gisalson T. epidemiology of sleep-related obstructive breathing. Sleep Med Rev 2000;4:411-433.
  19. Ip MSM, Lam B, Lauder IJ, Tsang KWT, Chung K, Mok Y, Lam W. Community study of sleep-disordered breathing in middle-aged Chinese men in Hong Kong. Chest 2001; 119:62-69
  20. J. C. Suri, M. K. Sen, Adhikari T. Indian Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders in the Adult Population of Delhi: A Questionnaire Based Study Ind J Sleep Med 2008; 3(4), 128-137
  21. Grandner MA, Patel NP, Gehrman PR, Perlis ML, Pack AI. Problems associated with short sleep: bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological studies. Sleep Med Rev, 2010;14:239–47.
  22. Lombardi DA, Folkard S, Willetts JL, Smith GS. Daily sleep, weekly working hours, and risk of work-related injury: US National Health Interview Survey (2004–2008). Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:1013–30.
  23. Colten HR, Altevogt BM. Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: an unmet public health problem. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006.
  24. Kaplan J. Sleep Deprivation. In Butkov N, Lee-Chiong T (eds):Fundamentals of Sleep Technology; Lipincott, Williams & Wilkins; American Association of Sleep Technologists, 2007; p 25.
  25. Johnson EO. Epidemiology of insomnia from adolescence to old age. Sleep Med Clin 2006; 1:305-17.
  26. Chokroverty S, Hening w, Walters A, Allen R. An approach to a patient with movement disorders during sleep and classification..In Chokroverty S, Hening W, Walters A(eds):Sleep and Movement disorders. Philadelphia, PA, Butterworth Heinemann, 2003, 201-18.
  27. Shapiro CM, Dement W. Impact and epidemiology of sleep disorders. In Shapiro CM (ed): ABC of Sleep Disorders London,BMJ Publishing Group,1993, p1-4.
  28. Tuchsen F. Working hours and ischaemic heart disease in Danish men: a 4-year cohort study of hospitalization. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22:215–221.
  29. Lilijenberg BM, Almqvist MJ, Hetta JB, Roos E, Agren H. The.prevalence of insomnia: The importance of operationally defined criteria. Ann Clin Res 1988; 20: 393-398.
  30. Klink M, Quan SE Prevalence of reported sleep disturbances in a general adult population and their relationship to obstructive airways diseases. Chest 1987; 91: 540-546.
  31. M C Jacquinet-Salord, T Lang, C Fouriaud, I Nicoulet, A Bingham, and the group of occupational physicians of APSAT J Epidemiol Community Health 1993; 47: 64-68
  32. Swift CG, Shapiro CM. Sleep and sleep problems in elderly people. In Shapiro CM (ed): ABC of Sleep Disorders; London,BMJ Publishing Group,1993, p 37
  33. Roth T, Roehrs TA. Etiologies and sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness. Clin Ther 1996;18:562-576.
  34. Johns M, Hocking B. Daytime sleepiness and sleep habits of Australian workers. Sleep 1997;20:844-849.
  35. Lavie P. Incidence of sleep apnea in a presumably healthy working population: a significant relationship with excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep 1983;6:312-318.
  36. Liu X, Uchiyama M, Kim K, Okawa M, Shibui K, Kudo Yet al. Sleep loss and daytime sleepiness in the general adult population of Japan. Psychiatry Res 2000; 93:1-11.
  37. Stradling JR, Barbour C, Glennon J, Langford BA, Crosby JH.Prevalence of sleepiness and its relation to autonomic evidence of arousals and increased inspiratory effort in a community based population of men and women. J Sleep Res 2000;9:381-388.
  38. Moldofsky H. Evaluation of daytime sleepiness. Clin Chest Med 1992;13:417-425.
  39. Roth T, Roehrs TA. Etiologies and sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness. Clin Ther 1996;18:562-576.
  40. Johns M, Hocking B. Daytime sleepiness and sleep habits of Australian workers. Sleep 1997;20:844-849
  41. Moldofsky H. Evaluation of daytime sleepiness. Clin Chest Med 1992;13:417-425.
  42. Roth T, Roehrs TA. Etiologies and sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness. Clin Ther 1996;18:562-576.
  43. Samuel Melamed and Arie Oksenberg. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Risk of Occupational Injuries in Non-Shift Daytime Workers daytime sleepiness. Sleep 2002, 1;25(3):315-22
  44. MMWR Weekly, 2012 :61 (16)April 27. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6116.pdf
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.