Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

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VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2012 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Upper Airway Sleep Disorders in Children: Orthodontist\'s Role

B Jayan, Kadu A

Keywords : *

Citation Information : Jayan B, A K. Upper Airway Sleep Disorders in Children: Orthodontist\'s Role. Indian Sleep Med 2012; 7 (2):36-41.

DOI: 10.5958/j.0973-340X.7.2.008

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2012; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Significant component of craniofacial development occurs within the first four years of life. A total of 90% of the craniofacial development is complete by the age of 12 years. Therefore, it can be concluded that morphometric features that puts an adult at risk of obstructive sleep apnoea(OSA)or sleep disordered breathing (SDB) were probably present at the age of 12 years. Class II malocclusions, narrow maxilla, mandibular deficiency, retrognathia, long face problems, inferiorly and posteriorly placed hyoid bone are all considered as craniofacial anomalies that predisposes a child to SDB. Craniofacial anatomy can influence the upper airway and environmental factors, like adenotonsillitis, nasal allergy, pernicious oral habits (prolonged pacifier use, thumb sucking, tongue thrusting and mouth breathing), and can also influence the growth and development of the craniofacial complex. It has been stated that mouth breathing as an ongoing pattern may be a sign of impending sleep apnoea. So it is of paramount importance for the healthcare professionals to keep a close eye on the risk factors and make appropriate referrals for requisite preventive, interceptive and corrective treatment. Promotion and propagation of breast feeding in infants, adeno-tonsillectomy, maxillary expansion and functional appliances aimed at posturing the mandible in forward position/optimal position, habit breaking appliances and maxilla-mandibular distraction osteogenesiss are the preventive, interceptive and corrective treatment options at our disposal. This communication is aimed at providing an overview of orthodontist\'s role in the management of upper airway sleep disorders in children in the back drop of craniofacial risk factors, environmental influences and appropriate orthodontic and dentofacial orthopaedic intervention strategies.


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