Sleep medicine is a rapidly developing specialty. Detection and treatment of sleep disorders is on the rise with changing lifestyles and more awareness. Sleep disturbances are increasingly commonly encountered in psychiatric practice compared with the general population. Sleep disturbances can be secondary to the psychiatric illness or might manifest as a side effect of psychotropic medications. However, they are frequently neglected or may be misdiagnosed as a primary psychiatric disorder and treated wrongly. Psychological disturbances such as depression can also occur due to primary sleep disorders. Comorbidity of sleep disorder and psychiatric disorder can affect treatment, course of both the disorders and ultimately affect the quality of life of the patients. Specialized sleep clinics are now a part of many specialties, such as pulmonary medicine. These clinics require specific standards with respect to staff and infrastructure; in addition, they necessitate effective liaison between multiple specialties. Development of sleep clinics in psychiatry would help in better detection, assessment, and treatment of sleep disturbances in psychiatric patients as well as those with primary sleep disturbances with secondary psychological distress. Sleep clinics would also help in understanding the complex relation between sleep and psychiatric disorders through research and would help in developing more effective management techniques.
Simon GE, VonKorff M. Prevalence, burden, and treatment of insomnia in primary care. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154(10): 1417–1423.
Drake CL, Roehrs T, Richardson G, et al. Shift work sleep disorder: prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers. Sleep 2004; 27(8): 1453–1462.
Rajaratnam SM, Barger LK, Lockley, SW, et al. Sleep disorders, health, and safety in police officers. JAMA 2011; 306(23) 2567–2578.
Grandner MA Pack AI. Sleep disorders, public health, and public safety. JAMA 2011;306(23) 2616–2617.
World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines, World Health Organization, Geneva 2005.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed, American Psychiatric Association, Washington 1994.
Plante DT, Winkelman JW. Sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder: therapeutic implications. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165(7) 830–843.
Kantrowitz J, Citrome L, Javitt D. GABA(B) receptors, schizophrenia and sleep dysfunction: a review of the relationship and its potential clinical and therapeutic implications. CNS Drugs 2009; 23(8) 681–691.
Monti JM Monti D. Sleep in schizophrenia patients and the effects of antipsychotic drugs. Sleep Med Rev 2004; 8(2) 133–48.
Vecchierini MF. [Sleep disturbances in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias]. Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2010; 8(1) 15–23.
Stores G. Basic aspects of sleep–wake disorders. In: New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, Lopez-Ibor JJ, Gelder M, Andreasen N, Geddes JR (Eds), Oxford 2009.[AQ: Please provide publisher name.]
Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed, Sadock VA, Sadock BJ, Ruiz P (Eds.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2009.
Eisen J, MacFarlane J, Shapiro CM. ABC of sleep disorders. Psychotropic drugs and sleep. BMJ 1993; 306(6888) 1331– 1334.
Breslau N, Roth T, Rosenthal L, et al. Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults. Biol Psychiatry 1996; 39(6) 411–418.
Gillin, JC. Are sleep disturbances risk factors for anxiety, depressive and addictive disorders? Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1998; 393 39–43.
American Academy of Sleep Medicine Accreditation of Sleep Disorders Centres. 2011; Available from http://www.aasmnet.org/accred_centerhome.aspx 2011.