Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2008 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders in the Adult Population of Delhi: A Questionnaire Based Study

M. K. Sen, Tulsi Adhikari, J. C. Suri

Citation Information : Sen MK, Adhikari T, Suri JC. Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders in the Adult Population of Delhi: A Questionnaire Based Study. Indian Sleep Med 2008; 3 (4):128-137.

DOI: 10.5005/ijsm-3-4-128

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2008

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2008; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

A questionnaire based survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of common sleeprelated disorders in the adult population of Delhi. The questionnaire used for the purposes of this study was adapted from those by Chervin and the Stanford Sleep Clinic questionnaire. A total of 4000 questionnaires were distributed of which 2774 were received back. And finally 2475 questionnaires were selected for analysis as they satisfied all criteria for acceptance. A subgroup of 200 (a number that was considered to be statistically significant) adults were randomly selected from the total pool of adults that reported snoring and were then subjected to whole night in-lab supervised polysomnography. The overall prevalence of snoring was found to be 39.5% (Males = 49.5%, Females = 29%). The overall prevalence of Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) was 4.3%. Approximately 48.6% of the adult population was seen to suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of restless leg syndrome was 8.2% and was found to correlate significantly with BMI, rising age and female gender. The overall prevalence of sleepwalking in the adult population studied was 6%. The prevalence of nightmares in the adult population studied was 30.6% while bruxism was observed to be present in 9.2% of the adult population studied. Approximately 2.3% of the entire study population admitted that they consumed sleeping pills. Its use correlated significantly with rising socio-economic strata and symptoms suggestive of disorders of initiation and maintenance of sleep (DIMS). Approximately 10.7% of the study population responded affirmatively to have met with road traffic accident in the past few years and 28.1% of the adult population was observed to have complaints suggestive of disorders of initiation and maintenance of sleep. More than half the population under study was observed to be sleep-deprived (sleep time <8 hours per day); and 29.3% of them slept for less than seven hours. In this questionnaire-based survey, approximately 55% of the study population was observed to have some type of sleep-related disorder. This indicates that the impact of sleep disorders on the morbidity profile of this segment of urban society is of a gigantic proportion. It also reflects the phenomenal burden of undiagnosed sleep disorders in this segment of the general population as well as its impact on social, mental, physical and economic health of the society.


PDF Share
  1. Suri JC, Sen MK, Adhikari T. Epidemiology of sleep disorder in school children of Delhi: A Questionnaire Based Study. Indian J Sleep Med 2008;3.2,42-50
  2. Chervin R et al. Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, University of Michigan (chervin@med.umich.edu)
  3. Uliel S, Tauman R, Green field M et al. Chest 2004;125:872-878.
  4. Adewole OO, Adeyemo H, Ayeni F, Anteyi EA, Ajuwon ZO, Erhabor GE, Adewole TT. Prevalence and correlates of snoring among adults in Nigeria: Afr Health Sci, 2008;8(2):108-13.
  5. Levendowski DJ, Morgan T, Montague J, Melzer V, Berka C, Westbrook PR. Prevalence of probable obstructive sleep apnea risk and severity in a population of dental patients. Sleep Breath, 2008;12(4):303-9.
  6. Bearpark H, Elliott L, Grunstein R, et al. Snoring and sleep apnea. A population study in Australian men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:1459-65.
  7. Grunstein RR, Philips CL. Obstructive sleep apnoeagetting to the heart of the matter?. MJA, 2008;188(6): 324-25.
  8. Ip MSM, Lam B, Lauder IJ, Tsang KWT, Chung K, Mok Y, Lam W. Community study of sleep-disordered breathing in middle-aged Chinese men in Hong Kong. Chest 2001; 119:62-69
  9. Udwadia ZF, Doshi AV, Lonkar SG, Singh CI. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing and sleep apnea in middleaged urban Indian men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2004;169:168-73.
  10. Young T, Peppard PE, Gottlieb DJ. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea – a population health perspective. Am J Respir Crit Care med, 2002;165:1217-39.
  11. Spoormaker VI, Van den Bout J. The prevalence of sleep disorders in the Netherlands.
  12. Young T, Peppard PE, Gottlieb DJ. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea: a population health perspective. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2002;165:1217-39.
  13. Jennum P, Riha RL. Epidemiology of sleep apnoea/ hypopnoea syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing. Eur Respir J 2009;33:907-914.
  14. Nomura T, Inoue Y, Kusumi M, Uemura Y, Nakashima K. Prevalence of restless legs síndrome in a rural community in Japan. Mov Disord, 2008;23(16):2363-9.
  15. Young TB, Blustein J, Finn L, Palta M. Sleep-disordered breathing and motor vehicle accidents in a population-based sample for employed adults. Sleep 1997;20:608-13.
  16. Tubtimtes S, Sukying C, Prueksaritanond S. Sleep problems in out-patient of primary care unit. J Med Asoc Thai. 2009;92(2):273-8.
  17. Vaz Fragoso CA, Araujo KL, Van Ness PH, Marottoli RA. Prevalence of sleep disturbances in a cohort of older drivers. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2008;63(7):715-23.
  18. Stradling JR, Crosby JH, Payne CD. Self reported snoring and daytime sleepiness in men aged 35-65 years. Thorax 1991;46:807-810.
  19. Douglass AB, Bornstein R,Nino-Murcia G, Keenan S, Miles L, Zarcon VP Jr. the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire. I: Creation and multivariate structure of SDQ. Sleep 1994;17:160-7
  20. International Classification of sleep disorders.
  21. Chokroverty S, Hening W, Walters A, Allen R. Restless legs syndrome-Introduction. In Chokroverty S, Hening W, Walters A(eds):Sleep and Movement disorders. Philadelphia, PA, Butterworth Heinemann, 2003, p 312-15.
  22. Lavigne GJ, Montplasir JY. Restless legs syndrome and sleep bruxism: prevalence and association among Canadians. Sleep 1994;17:739
  23. Chokroverty S, Hening w, Walters A, Allen R. An approach to a patient with movement disorders during sleep and classification..In Chokroverty S, Hening W, Walters A(eds):Sleep and Movement disorders. Philadelphia, PA, Butterworth Heinemann, 2003, p 201-18.
  24. Johnson EO. Epidemiology of insomnia from adolescence to old age. Sleep Med Clin 2006; 1:305-17.
  25. Phillip P, Taillard J.Driving performance. In Lenfant C, Kushida CA (eds) Sleep Deprivation. Lung Biology in Health and Disease Series;193:262-267
  26. Bodonada MA, Cid-Ruzafa j. Drugs and alcohol use in Spain: consumption habits, attitudes and opinions. Public health 1997;111:277-84
  27. Davies RJO, Stradling JR. The epidemiology of sleep apnea. Thorax 1996;51:S65-S70.
  28. Lindberg E, Gisalson T. epidemiology of sleep-related obstructive breathing. Sleep Med Rev 2000;4:411-433.
  29. Purvis C, Phillips B, Asher K et al. The 1996 Kentucky behavioral risk factor surveillance survey. Sleep Res 1997;26:474 (abstr)
  30. Ulfberg j, Nystrom B, Carter N, Edling C. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome among men aged 18 to 64 years An association with somatic disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Mov Disord 2001;16;1159
  31. RLS Medical bulletin. Rochester MN, Restless Leg Syndrome Foundation,1999:1.
  32. Shapiro CM, Dement W. Impact and epidemiology of sleep disorders. In Shapiro CM (ed): ABC of Sleep Disorders London, BMJ Publishing Group,1993, p1-4
  33. Driver HS, Shapiro CM. Impact and epidemiology of sleep disorders. In Shapiro CM (ed): ABC of Sleep Disorders; London, BMJ Publishing Group,1993, p26-29
  34. Douglas NJ. The sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and snoring. In Shapiro CM (ed): ABC of Sleep Disorders London,BMJ Publishing Group,1993,p19-22 Driver HS, Shapiro CM. Impact and epidemiology of sleep disorders. In Shapiro CM (ed): ABC of Sleep Disorders; London, BMJ Publishing Group,1993, p26-2
  35. Swift CG, Shapiro CM. Sleep and sleep problems in elderly people. In Shapiro CM (ed): ABC of Sleep Disorders; London, BMJ Publishing Group,1993, p37-40.
  36. Kaplan J. Sleep Deprivation. In Butkov N, Lee-Chiong T (eds):Fundamentals of Sleep Technology; Lipincott, Williams & Wilkins; American Association of Sleep Technologists, 2007; p 25.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.