Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2008 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Reliability and Validity of Persian Version of “BEARS” Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire

Mahmoud Mohammadi, Ebrahim Amintehran, Mir Farhad Ghaleh-bandi, Mahmoud Reza Ashrafi, Shervan Shoaee, Babak Ghalehbaghi

Keywords : Children, Sleep, Sleep disorders, Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, Screening tools, Primary care.

Citation Information : Mohammadi M, Amintehran E, Ghaleh-bandi MF, Ashrafi MR, Shoaee S, Ghalehbaghi B. Reliability and Validity of Persian Version of “BEARS” Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. Indian Sleep Med 2008; 3 (1):14-19.

DOI: 10.5005/ijsm-3-1-14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-03-2008

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2008; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Objective: To determine the reliability and validity of Persian version of “BEARS” (B=Bedtime Issues, E= Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, A=Night Awakenings, R=Regularity and Duration of Sleep, S=Snoring) pediatric sleep questionnaire. Setting: Two primary care pediatric clinics in Tehran, IRAN Methods: In the first step BEARS sleep questionnaire filled and in a 2 to 4 week period BEARS completed again (by another questioner) and all of the subjects visited by sleep specialists for diagnosis of sleep problem. To determine test-retest reliability findings of BEARS compared during the time and between different questioners. To determine criteria validity, findings of BEARS compared with experts’ diagnosis. Results: A total of 215 children (2-12 years old) were studied. From these 101 were in preschool age group (2-6 years old) and 114 in primary school age group (7-12 years old). All of the BEARS items in preschool age group and most of the items in school aged group had good to excellent test-retest reliability (P<0.05). Approximate to half of items in both age groups were valid (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of BEARS (a simple brief screening tool for pediatric sleep problems) is a reliable and relatively valid sleep screening tool in children especially in Persian language.


PDF Share
  1. Mindell JA, Owens JA, Carskadon MA. Development features of sleep. Child Adoles Psychiatr Clin NA 1999;8(4):695–725.
  2. Dement WC, Mitler MM. Waking up to the importance of sleep disorders: A commentary. JAMA. 1993;269:1548– 1550
  3. Young T, Paulta M, Dempsey J, Weber S, Badr S. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middleaged adults. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1230–1235
  4. Leger D. Public health and insomnia: economic impact. Sleep. 2000; 23(suppl 3):S69
  5. Meissner HH, Riemer A, Santiago SM, Stein M, Goldman MD, Williams AJ. Failure of physician documentation of sleep complaints in hospitalized patients. West J Med. 1998;169:146–149
  6. Owens JA, Dalzell V. Use of the ‘BEARS’ sleep screening tool in a pediatric residents’ continuity clinic: a pilot study. Sleep Medicine 2005;6: 63–69.
  7. Carskadon MA. Patterns of sleep and sleepiness in adolescents. Pediatrician 1990;17:5–12.
  8. Ali NJ, Pitson D, Stradlin JR. Natural history of snoring and related behaviour problems between the ages of 4 and 7 years. Arch Dis Child 1994;71:74–6.
  9. Minde K, Faucon A, Falkner S. Sleep problems in toddlers: effects of treatment on their daytime behavior. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1994;33:1114–21.
  10. Wolfson AR, Carskadon MA. Sleep schedules and daytime function in adolescents. Child Dev 1998;69:875–87.
  11. Kahn A, Van de Merckt C, Rebuffat E, et al. Sleep problems in healthy preadolescents. Pediatrics 1989;84:542–6.
  12. Valent F, Brusaferro S, Barbone F. A case-crossover study of sleep and childhood injury. Pediatrics 2001;107:E23.
  13. Gelman VS, King NJ. Wellbeing of mothers with children exhibiting sleep disturbance. Austrian J Psychol 2001;53(1):18–22.
  14. Meissner HH, Riemer A, Santiago SM, et al. Failure of physician documentation of sleep complaints in hospitalized patients. West J Med 1998;169:146–9.
  15. Haponik EF, Frye AW, Richards B, et al. Sleep history is neglected diagnostic information—challenges for primary care physicians. J Gen Intern Med 1996;11:759–61.
  16. Owens JA. The practice of pediatric sleep medicine: results of a community survey. Pediatrics 2001;108(3):e51.
  17. Chervin RD, Archbold KH, Panahi P, Pituch KJ. Sleep problems seldom addressed at two general pediatric clinics. Pediatrics 2001; 107(6):1375–80.
  18. Garcia J, Wills L. Sleep disorders in children and teens: helping patients and their families get some rest. Postgrad Med 2000;107(3):161-78
  19. Blader JC, Koplewicz HS, Abikoff H, Foley C. Sleep problems of elementary school children: a community survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151:473–80.
  20. Ali NJ, Pitson DJ, Stradling JR. Snoring, sleep disturbance, and behaviour in 4–5 year olds. Arch Dis Child 1993;68:360–6.
  21. Gialason T, Benediktsdottir B. Snoring, apneic episodes, and nocturnal hypoxemia among children 6 months to 6 years old. Chest 1995;107:963–6.
  22. Redline S, Tishler PV, Schluchter M, et al. Risk factors for sleep disordered breathing in children. Associations with obesity, race, and respiratory problems. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:1527–32.
  23. Owens JA, Spirito A, McGuinn M, Nobile C. Sleep habits and sleep disturbance in elementary school-aged children. Dev Behav Pediatr 2000;21(1):27–36.
  24. Lavigne JV, Koplewicz HS, Abikoff H, Foley C. Sleep and behavior problems among pre-schoolers. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1999;20:164–70.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.