Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

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VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Comprehensive Overview on Sleep

Romman Fatima, Afra Fatima, Shaheer Ali Khan, Sri Anugna Miriyala, KJ Srilakshmi, Masna Rishika, Yogamagal Mohan, Muskan Mall, Aneezeh Khatri, Waqas Burney, Noorulain Aqeel

Keywords : Circadian rhythm, Melatonin, Review, Risk factors, Sleep, Sleep disorders

Citation Information : Fatima R, Fatima A, Khan SA, Miriyala SA, Srilakshmi K, Rishika M, Mohan Y, Mall M, Khatri A, Burney W, Aqeel N. Comprehensive Overview on Sleep. Indian Sleep Med 2023; 18 (2):29-36.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0116

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 06-10-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


The circadian rhythm mediated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus is primarily responsible for maintaining the sleep and wakefulness states. Numerous physiologic mechanisms and bodily repairs occur during the state of sleep along with functional alterations in both the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. Most individuals cycle through three stages of nonrapid eye movement sleep, accounting for about 75% of total sleep duration, followed by rapid eye movement sleep, which makes up the remaining 25%. Besides the above, endocrine factors like the release of melatonin from the pineal gland also have a significant impact on the initiation and maintenance of sleep phases. The emotional factors and the limbic system in association with a multitude of variables like stress, drugs, substance use like alcohol, appetite, and behavioral patterns are known to modulate a typical sleep cycle. Given below is a detailed review of normal sleep physiology and numerous sleep-related disorders, their risk factors along with their management, and a brief description of all factors that influence as well as alter the neuronal signaling processes of the brain.

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