Sleep disorders in children are often unrecognized and underreported in India.Aims and objectives: Our study aims to find the prevalence of sleep disorders among children aged 5–15 years and to determine the relationship between serum 25 (OH) vitamin D levels and sleep disorders in children.
Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional prospective study conducted in the pediatric OPD of a tertiary care hospital in Kochi, India. Fifty children satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken up for the study. Data were collected using the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (Chervin, University of Michigan). A blood sample was collected for serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D estimation using the chemiluminescent protein binding assay. Comparison between the vitamin D levels and sleep disorders was made by the Fischer's exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test.
Results: The prevalence of sleep disorders in our study was 88% with parasomnias being the most common sleep disorder. Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 78% of children and 22% had vitamin D insufficiency. The mean vitamin D level was much lower in children with sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) (p = 0.02), excessive daytime sleepiness (p = 0.031), and restless leg syndrome (RLS) (p = 0.007) when compared to children without these disorders. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was more among children with SRBD when compared to children without SRBD (p = 0.04).
Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a high prevalence of sleep disorders in studied children and vitamin D deficiency is an associated risk factor for sleep disorders.
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