Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

Register      Login

VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2021 ) > List of Articles


Effects of Diet Components on the Sleep Quality of First-year Medical Students of a Medical University of Northern India

Shubhajeet Roy, Archna Ghildiyal

Keywords : Calories, Diet components, Medical students, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, Sleep quality

Citation Information : Roy S, Ghildiyal A. Effects of Diet Components on the Sleep Quality of First-year Medical Students of a Medical University of Northern India. Indian Sleep Med 2021; 16 (4):116-124.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0089

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 28-01-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Aim: The primary aim was to find out the effect of diet components: protein-rich food (represented by the non-vegetarians) or carbohydrate-rich food (represented by the vegetarians) on the sleep quality of first-year medical students. The secondary aim was to find whether the total calorie intake and the sleep quality of the subjects had any relation. Materials and methods: Students were divided into four groups according to gender and whether they are vegetarians or non-vegetarians. All of them were required to fill their daily food consumption questionnaire, at the end of each day, for 28 days. At the end of this period, they had to fill the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. The total calorie intake and PSQI scores were calculated and analyzed. Results: The average calorie intake and PSQI score of non-vegetarians are ± SD = 50747.78 ± 15068.05 kcal and 5.76 ± 2.57, respectively. The average calorie intake and PSQI score of vegetarians are ± SD = 60342.63 ± 18309.56 kcal and 6.02 ± 2.66, respectively. No significant correlation was found to exist between calorie intake and sleep quality, in any of the individual groups nor overall. Conclusion: The average calorie intake of vegetarians was higher, but their sleep quality was worse, due to more carbohydrate consumption and less protein consumption as compared to the non-vegetarians. More of carbohydrate and less of protein had resulted into their poorer sleep quality. Boys had overall better sleep quality than girls. Excess intake of snacks and fast food and consuming less variety of foods, as mostly seen in girls, were also found to be the dietary reasons behind their poorer sleep quality. Clinical significance: This study will help hostellers in finding the balanced combination of food components that are best for them to lead a healthy life and get the very needed sound sleep and can be beneficial for different institutions in designing their balanced hostel mess menu.

  1. Colten HR, Altevogt BM. Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: an unmet public health problem. Washington (DC): The National Academic Press; 2006. p. 33–54. PMID: 20669438.
  2. Patel SR. Reduced sleep as an obesity risk factor. Obes Rev 2009;10(Suppl. 2):61–68. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00664.x.
  3. Patel SR, Hu FB. Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16(3):643–653. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2007.118.
  4. Keith SW, Redden DT, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Putative contributors to the secular increase in obesity: exploring the roads less travelled. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006;30(11):1585–1594. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803326.
  5. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF III, Monk TH, et al. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res 1988;28(2):193–213. DOI: 10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4.
  6. Longvah T, Ananthan R, Bhaskarachary K, et al. Indian food consumption tables. National Institute of Nutrition (Indian Council of Medical Research), Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India; 2017.
  7. Krishnaswamy K, Bhaskaram P, Bhat RV, et al. Dietary guidelines for Indians–a manual. 2nd ed. National Institute of Nutrition (Indian Council of Medical Research), Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India; 2011.
  8. Katagiri R, Asakura K, Kobayashi S, et al. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers. J Occup Health 2014;56(5):359–368. DOI: 10.1539/joh.14-0051-oa.
  9. Martinez SM, Tschann JM, Butte NF, et al. Short sleep duration is associated with eating more carbohydrates and less dietary fat in Mexican American children. Sleep 2017;40(2):1–7. DOI: 10.1093/sleep/zsw057.
  10. St-Onge MP, Mikic A, Pietrolungo CE. Effects of diet on sleep quality. Adv Nutr 2016;7(5):938–949. DOI: 10.3945/an.116.012336.
  11. Tanaka E, Yatsuya H, Uemura M, et al. Associations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes with insomnia symptoms among middle-aged Japanese workers. J Epidemiol 2013;23(2):132–138. DOI: 10.2188/jea.je20120101.
  12. Tan X, Alen M, Cheng SM, et al. Association of disordered sleep with body fat distribution, physical activity and diet among overweight middle-aged men. J Sleep Res 2015;24(4):414–424. DOI: 10.1111/jsr.12283.
  13. Jaussent I, Dauvilliers Y, Ancelin ML, et al. Insomnia symptoms in older adults: associated factors and gender differences. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2011;19(1):88–97. DOI: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181e049b6.
  14. Weiss A, Xu F, Storfer-Isser A, et al. The association of sleep duration with adolescent's fat and carbohydrate consumption. Sleep 2010;33(9):1201–1209. DOI: 10.1093/sleep/33.9.1201.
  15. Fatima Y, Doi SAR, Najman JM, et al. Exploring gender difference in sleep quality of young adults: findings from a large population study. Clin Med Res 2016;14(3–4):138–144. DOI: 10.3121/cmr.2016.1338.
  16. Hung HC, Yang YC, Ou HY, et al. The association between self-reported sleep quality and metabolic syndrome. PLoS One 2013;8(1):e54304. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054304.
  17. Afandi O, Hawi H, Mohammed L, et al. Sleep quality among university students: evaluating the impact of smoking, social media use, and energy drink consumption on sleep quality and anxiety. Inquiries J/Stud Pulse 2013;5:1–3. Available from:
  18. Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, et al. Sleep curtailmentvis accompanied by increased intake of calories from snacks. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(1):126–133. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26574.
  19. Grandner MA, Jackson N, Grestner JR, et al. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration: data from a nationally representative sample. Appetite 2013;64:71–80. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.01.004.
  20. Imaki M, Hatanaka Y, Ogawa Y, et al. An epidemiological study on relationship between the hours of sleep and life style factors in Japanese factory workers. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 2002;21(2):115–120. DOI: 10.2114/jpa.21.115.
  21. St-Onge MP, Roberts AL, Chen J, et al. Short sleep duration increases energy intakes but does not change energy expenditure in normal-weight individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94(2):410–416. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.013904.
  22. Schmid SM, Hallschmid M, Jauch-Chara K, et al. Short-term sleep loss decreases physical activity under free-living conditions but does not increase food intake under time-deprived laboratory conditions in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90(6):1476–1482. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27984.
  23. Grandener MA, Kripke DF, Naidoo N, et al. Relationships among dietary nutrients and subjective sleep, objective sleep, and napping in women. Sleep Med 2010;11(2):180–184. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2009.07.014.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.