Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underdiagnosed and often ignored entity. Besides, its management needs a multimodality approach including medical, surgical, dental, and positive airway pressure therapy. This short review discusses the approach, management, and screening options for pediatric OSA along with a glimpse of the latest innovations and the road ahead.
Reddy KRB, Nair S. Comparative study of polysomnography findings in children with Prader–Willi syndrome and non-syndromic children. Indian Sleep Med 2020;15(4):65–68. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0061.
Carvalho B, Hsia J, Capasso R. Surgical therapy of obstructive sleep apnea: a review. Neurotherapeutics 2012;9(4):710–716. DOI: 10.1007/s13311-012-0141-x.
Mittal A, Suri JC, Chakrabarti S, et al. Therapeutic cure of obesity hypoventilation syndrome resulting in cure of obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome. Indian Sleep Med 2019;14(1):18–21. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0034.
Ahmad L, Kapoor P, Bhaskar S, et al. Screening of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk in adolescent population and study of association with craniofacial and upper airway morphology. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2020;10(4):807–813. DOI: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.10.006.
Dieltjens M, Vanderveken O. Oral appliances in obstructive sleep apnea. Healthcare (Basel) 2019;7(4):141. DOI: 10.3390/healthcare7040141.
Villa MP, Rizzoli A, Rabasco J, et al. Rapid maxillary expansion outcomes in treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children. Sleep Med 2015;16(6):705–716. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2014.11.019.
Sharples LD, Clutterbuck-James AL, Glover MJ, et al. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of oral mandibular advancement devices and continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea. Sleep Med Rev 2016;27:108–124. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.05.003.
Pépin JL, Raymond N, Lacaze O, et al. Heat-moulded versus custom-made mandibular advancement devices for obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Thorax 2019;74(7): 667–674. DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212726.
Okuno K, Pliska BT, Hamoda M, et al. Prediction of oral appliance treatment outcomes in obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review. Sleep Med Rev 2016;30:25–33. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.11.007.
Kennedy B, Lasserson TJ, Wozniak DR, et al. Pressure modification or humidification for improving usage of continuous positive airway pressure machines in adults with obstructive sleep apnoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019;12(12):CD003531. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003531.pub4.
Tuomilehto H, Uusitupa M. Lifestyle changes aiming at weight loss should always be included in the treatment of obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep 2014;37(5):1021. DOI: 10.5665/sleep.3682. PMID: 24790281; PMCID: PMC3985109.
Rotenberg BW, Murariu D, Pang KP. Trends in CPAP adherence over twenty years of data collection: a flattened curve. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016;45(1):43. DOI: 10.1186/s40463-016-0156-0.
MacKay SG, Carney AS, Woods C, et al. Modified uvulopalato- pharyngoplasty and coblation channeling of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea: a multi-centre Australian trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):117–124. DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.2402.
Pattanaik S, Rajagopal R, Mohanty N, et al. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in an Indian population: using STOPBANG questionnaire. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11(11):100–103. DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i11.27598.
Goyal A, Pakhare AP, Bhatt GC, et al. Association of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea with poor academic performance: a school-based study from India. Lung India 2018;35(2):132. DOI: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_218_17.
Chowdhry A, Kapoor P, Popli DB. Strengthening health care research and academics during and after COVID19 pandemic—an Indian perspective. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2020;10(4):343–346. DOI: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.06.015.
Kapoor P, Sengar P, Chowdhry A. Prototype of customized mobile application for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)-Risk assessment in COVID-19 pandemic. J Ind Orthod Soc 2021. DOI: 10.1177/0301574220982735.
Chakrabarti S, Singh MB, Kumar R, et al. Comparison of Epworth Sleepiness Scale and STOP-BANG questionnaire for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea at a tertiary care centre in North India–a retrospective study. Indian J Sleep Med 2019;14(3):46–50. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0042.
Chervin RD, Hedger K, Dillon JE, et al. Pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ): validity and reliability of scales for sleep disordered breathing, snoring, sleepiness, and behavioral problems. Sleep Med 2000;1(1):21–32. DOI: 10.1016/s1389-9457(99)00009-x.
Tiron R, Lyon G, Kilroy H, et al. Screening for obstructive sleep apnea with novel hybrid acoustic smartphone app technology. J Thorac Dis 2020;12(8):4476–4495. DOI: 10.21037/jtd-20-804.