Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

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VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2020 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea vs Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Orthodontic Perspective

Balavenkata B Chaturvedula, Ashwin M George, Naveen K Mani, Saravana Dinesh, Aravind K Subramanian

Keywords : Growth patterns, Lower pharyngeal airway, Mandibular protraction appliance, Maxillary constriction, Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, Rapid maxillary expansion, Upper pharyngeal airway

Citation Information : Chaturvedula BB, George AM, Mani NK, Dinesh S, Subramanian AK. Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea vs Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Orthodontic Perspective. Indian Sleep Med 2020; 15 (2):17-20.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10069-0052

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 24-09-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Introduction: The literature evidence currently available shows a significant shift toward orthodontics and the orthodontist for management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Individuals with narrow airways and/or craniofacial anomalies may have an increased risk for OSA/hypopnea syndrome, and identification of these at an early stage quite often is done by the orthodontist. The management approach to pediatric OSA is diametrically different than that of adult OSA. This study was performed to determine the upper pharyngeal airway (UPA) space and the lower pharyngeal airway (LPA) space in children of South Indian origin and establish a correlation between airway measurements and growth patterns, if any. Materials and methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 100 medically fit children less than 12–13 years were assessed. The cephalograms were digitally analyzed using Facad and categorized into three growth patterns. McNamara airway analysis was used to measure the UPA and LPA space. Obtained results were subject to statistical analysis. Results: Of total 100 subjects, 33 were in group I [horizontal growth pattern (HGP)], 30 in group II [average growth pattern (AGP)], and 37 in group III [vertical growth pattern (VGP)]. There was a significant reduction in both UPA and LPA dimensions in hyperdivergent or vertical growers: 9.56 ± 0.54 mm and 9.03 ± 1.67 mm, respectively. An odd\'s ratio of 1.18 was obtained, suggestive of good correlation between Frankfurt mandibular plane angle (FMA) and airway measurements. Conclusion: The impact of OSA on the growth and development of a child may have detrimental effects on health, neuropsychological development, quality of life, and economic potential; therefore, OSA in children should be recognized as a public health problem as in the adult population. Clinical significance: Results of this study clearly indicate that there is strong correlation between the pharyngeal space and type of growth pattern in children of South Indian origin.


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