Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) hallmarked by upper airway collapsibility and obstruction leading to nocturnal hypoxia and sleep arousals. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic medical malady which stems from an aberration in the glucose metabolism leading to multisystemic complications and eventually ends organ damage. Both these disorders are independently major public health concerns by virtue of their momentous morbidity, mortality and healthcare albatross. The liaison between these two leviathans is enigmatic and multifarious. Prima facie they share a common predisposing factor of obesity. OSA is associated with impairment of glucose metabolism and predisposes the individual to the development of DM.
Moreover DM serves as a risk factor for OSA in conjunction with the other components of the metabolic syndrome. Untreated DM leads to aggravation of the severity of OSA while untreated OSA leads to suboptimal glycemic control and propagates complications of DM. This intricate relationship between DM and OSA is a fertile and deficiently fathomed terrain for contemplative research. We hereby make a humble endeavor to decipher and simplify the Daedalean association.
Franklin KA, Lindberg E., et al. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in the population-a review on the epidemiology of sleep apnea. J Thorac Dis. 2015;7:1311-1322.
Lacedonia D, Carpagnano GE, Patricelli G, Carone M, Gallo C, Caccavo I, et al. Prevalence of comorbidities in patients with Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, overlap syndrome and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ClinRespir J 2018; 5: 1905-1911.
Stumvoll M, Goldstein BJ, Van Haeften TW et al. Type 2 diabetes: principles of pathogenesis and therapy. Lancet 2005;365:1333-1346.
Raju YS, Swaroopa D, Yadati R, Alekhya A, et al. Diabetes mellitus and obstructive sleep apnoea: implications for clinicians. J Clin Sci Res 2016;5:225-233.
Botros N, Concato J, Mohsenin V, Selim B, Doctor K, Yaggi HK, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. Am J Med 2009; 122: 1122-1127.
Ronksley PE, Hemelgarn BR, Heitman SJ, Hanly PJ, Faris PD, Quan H, et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with diabetes in sleepy subjects. Thorax 2009;64:834-839.
Reichmuth KJ, Austin D, Skatrud JB, Young T, et al. Association of sleep apnea and type II diabetes: a population-based study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;172:1590-1595.
Marshall NS, Wong KK, Phillips CL, Liu PY, Knuiman MW, Grunstein RR, et al. Is sleep apnea an independent risk factor for prevalent and incident diabetes in the Busselton Health Study? J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5:15-20.
Resnick HE, Redline S, Shahar E, Gilpin A, Newman A, Walter R, et al. Diabetes and sleep disturbances: findings from the Sleep Heart Health Study. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 702-709.
Foster GD, Sanders MH, Millman R, ZammitG, Borradaile KE, Newman AB, et al. Sleep AHEAD Research Group. Obstructive sleep apnea among obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:1017-1019.
Reutrakul S, Thakkinstian A, Anothaistintawec T, Chontong S, Borel AL, Perfect MM, et al. Sleep characteristics in Type 1 diabetes and association with glucose control: systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med 2016;23:26-45.
Banghoej AM, Nerild HH, Kristensen PL, Pedersen- Bjergaardu, Fleischer J, Jensen AE, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea is frequent in patients with Type 1 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications 2017; 31: 156-161.
Tahrani AA, et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea in Diabetics Does it matter? Diab Vas Dis 2017; 14: 454-462.
Sharma SK, Katoch VM, Mohan A, Kadhiravan T, Elavarasi A, Ragesh R, et al. Indian Initiative on Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Guidelines Working Group; Indian Initiative on Obstructive Sleep. Consensus and evidence-based INOSA Guidelines 2014 (first edition). Indian J Med Res 2014;140:451-468.
Punjabi NM, et al. The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea. Proc Am Thorac Soc2008;5:136-143.
Gozal D, Kheirandish-Gozal L, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea: oxidative stress, inflammation, and much more. Am J respircrit Care Med. 2008; 177(4): 369-375.
Collop NA, Anderson WM, Boehlecke B, Claman D, Goldberg R, Gottlieb DJ, et al. Portable Monitoring Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Clinical guidelines for the use of unattended portable monitors in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3(7):737-747.
Reutrakul S, Mokhlesi B. Obstructive sleep apnea and diabetes: A state of Art Review. Chest 2017; 152: 1070-1086.
Hermans MP, Ahn SA, Mahadeb YP, Rousseau MF, et al. Sleep apnoea syndrome and 10-year cardiovascular risk in females with type 2 diabetes: relationship with insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2013; 29: 227-234.
Pamidi S, Wroblewski K, Broussard J, Day A, Hanlon EC, Abraham V, Tasali E, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in young lean men: impact on insulin sensitivity and secretion. Diabetes Care 2012; 35: 2384-2389.
Punjabi NM, Beamer BA, et al. Alterations in Glucose Disposal in Sleep-disordered Breathing. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 2009; 179: 235-240.
Cappuccio FP, D'Elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA. Quantity and quality of sleep and incidence of Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2010;33:414-420.
Mondini S, Guilleminault C, et al. Abnormal breathing patterns during sleep in diabetes. Ann Neurol 1985; 17: 391-395.
Ficker JH, Dertinger SH, Siegfried W, König HJ, Pentz M, Sailer D, et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea and diabetes mellitus: the role of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. EurRespir J 1998; 11: 14-19.
Vishwanathan V, Ramalingam IP, Ramkrishnan N, et al. Higher prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Tertiary Care centre. J Assoc Physicians India 2017; 65: 38-42.
Rudrappa S, Warren G, Idris I, et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, independent of conventional risk factors and novel biomarkers for diabetic retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 2012; 96: 1535.
Kato M, Roberts-Thomson P, Phillips BG, Haynes WG, Winnicki M, Accurso V, et al. Impairment of endothelium dependent vasodilation of resistance vessels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation 2000; 102: 2607- 2610.
Fujita T, Hemmi S, Kajiwara M, Yabuki M, Fuke Y, Satomura A, et al. Complement-mediated chronic inflammation is associated with diabetic microvascular complication. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2013; 29: 220-226.
Elmarakby AA, Sullivan JC, et al. Relation between oxida- tive stress and inflammatory cytokines in diabetic nephropathy. CardiovasTher 2012; 30: 49-59.
Vas PR, Ahluwalia R, Manas AB, Manu CA, Kavarthapu V, Edmonds ME, et al. Undiagnosed severe sleep apnea and diabetic foot ulceration- a case series based hypothesis: a hitherto underemphasized factor in failure to heal. Diabet Med 2016; 33: 1-4.
Gabric K, Matetic A, Vilovic M, Ticinovic KT, Rusic D, Galic T, et al. Health related quality of life in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with differential riskfor obstructive sleep apnea. Patient Prefer Adherence 2018; 12: 765-773.
Mok Y, Tan CW, Wong HS, How CH, Tan KL, Hsu PP, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes: are they connected? Singapore Med J 2017; 58: 179-183.
Al Mawed S, Unruh M, et al. Diabetes, kidney disease and obstructive sleep apnea: a new frontier? CurrOpinPum Med 2016; 22:80-88.
Donovan LM, Ruschman M, Weng J, Basu N, Dudley KA, Bakker JP, et al. The efficacy of an obstructive sleep apnea screening and reatment program in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clinprac 2017; 134: 145-152.
Ioja S, Chasens ER, Ng J, Strolo PG, Korytkowski MT, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes : perspective from a quality improvement initiative in a university- based diabetic center. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2017; 9: 433.
Zhu B, Ma C, Chaiard J, Sci C, et al. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on glucose metabolism in adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta- analysis of randomised control trials. Sleep Breath 2018; 22: 287-295.
Sharma SK, Agrawal S, Damodaran D, Sreenivas V, Kadhiravan T, Lakshmy R. CPAP for the metabolic syndrome in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med 2011; 365:2277-2286.
Malik JA, Mansoodi SR, Shoib S. obstructive sleep apnea in type 2 diabetes and impact of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on glycemic control. Indian JEndocrMetab 2017; 21: 106-112.
Martinez- Ceron E, Fernandez–Navarro I, Garcia- Rio F, et al. Efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on glucose metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Med Rev 2016; 25: 121–130.
Chen L, Kuang J Pei JH, Chen HM, Li ZW, Yang HZ, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure and diabetes risk in sleep apnea patients : A systematic review and metaanalysis. Eur J Intern Med 2017; 39: 39-50.
Shechter A, Foster GD, Lang W, Reboussin DM, St-Onge MP, Zammit G, et al. Effects of a lifestyle intervention on REM sleep related OSA severity in obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. J Sleep Res 2017; 26:47-755.
Smits. The energy body in yoga – Ekhart Yoga. 2015 (cited 2017 Apr 22). Available from: https://www.ekhartyoga. com/blog/the-energy-body-in-yoga.
Rshikesan P, Subramanya P, Singh D, et al. Sleep quality and body composition variations in obese male adults after 14 weeks of yoga intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Int J Yoga2017;10(3):128.
Ebrahimi M, Guilan-Nejad TN, Pordanjani AF, et al. Effect of yoga and aerobics exercise on sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Sleep Sci 2017;10(2):68-72.
Halpern J, Cohen M, Kennedy G, Reece J, Cahan C, Baharav A, et al. Yoga for improving sleep quality and quality of life for older adults. Altern Ther Health Med 2014;20(3):37–46.
Rao M, Metri KG, Nagarathna R, Nagendra H, et al. Effects of Mind Sound Resonance Technique (Yogic Relaxation) on Psychological States, Sleep Quality, and Cognitive Functions in Female Teachers: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Adv Mind Body Med 2017;31(1):4-9.
Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ, et al. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. psychiatry Res. 1989;28(2):193-213.
Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R, et al. A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. J Health Soc Behav 1983;24(4):385-96.
World Health Organization. WHOQOL-BREF: introduction, administration, scoring and generic version of the assessment: field trial version, december 1996. Geneva; 1996.
Deshpande S, Nagendra HR, Raghuram N, et al. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers. Int J Yoga 2008 Jan;1(1):2-10.
Patra S, Telles S, et al. Positive impact of cyclic meditation on subsequent sleep. Med Sci Monit 2009 Jul;15(7):CR375-81.
Hegde A, Metri K, Chwadhary P, Babu N, Nagendra HR, et al. Effects of yoga on cardiac health sleep quality, mental health and quality of life of elderly individuals with chronic ailments. Voice Res. 2017;6(1):1-5.
Splinter MY. Rotigotine: transdermal dopamine agonist treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. Ann Pharmacother 2007 Feb;41(2):285-295.
Iranzo A, Molinuevo JL, Santamaría J, Serradell M, Martí MJ, Valldeoriola F, Tolosa E. Rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder as an early marker for a neurodegenerative disorder: a descriptive study. Lancet Neurol 2006 Jul;5(7):572-577.
Howell MJ, Schenck CH. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative disease. JAMA Neurol 2015 Jun;72(6):707-712.
Sixel-Döring F, Trautmann E, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. Rapid eye movement sleep behavioral events: a new marker for neurodegeneration in early Parkinson disease? Sleep 2014 Mar;37(3):431-438.
Vibha D, Shukla G, Goyal V, Singh S, Srivastava AK, Behari M. RBD in Parkinson's disease: a clinical case control study from North India. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2011 Jul;113(6):472-476.
Vibha D, Shukla G, Singh S, Goyal V, Srivastava AK, Behari M. Lower prevalence of sleep disturbances in familial versus sporadic Parkinson's disease: a questionnaire based study. J Neurol Sci 2010 Aug;295(1-2):27-30.
Abu Alhaija ES, Al-Nimri KS, Al-Khateeb SN. Self perception of malocclusion among Jordanian school children. Eur J Orthod 2005 Jun;27(3):292-295.
Kolawole KA, Otuyemi DE, Jebode SO, Unweni AA. Awareness for malocclusion and desire for orthodontic treatment need in 11-14year old Nigerian school and their parents. Aust Orthod J 2008 May;24(1):21-25.
Cucalon A 3rd, Smith RJ. Relationship between by adolescent orthodontics patients and performance on psychological tests. Angle Orthod 1990 Summer;60(2):107-114.
Southard KA, Tolley EA, Arheart KL, Hackett-Renner CA, Southard TE. Application of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory in evaluating orthodontic compliance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991 Dec;100(6):553-561.
Kharbanda OP. What is the prevalence of malocclusion in India? Do we know orthodontic treatment needs of our country. J Indian Orthod Soc 1999 Apr-Jun;32(2):33-41.
Siddiqui TA, Shaikh A, Fida M. Agreement between orthodontist and patient perception using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Saudi Dent J 2014 Oct;26(4):156-165.
Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F. Orthodontic treatment needs in an urban Iranian population in epidemiological study of 11-14 years old children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2009 Jun;10(2):69-74.
Grando G, Young AA, Vedovello Filho M, Vedovello SA, Ramirez-Yañez GO. Prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 2008 Summer;19(2):13-16.
Nadim R, Aslam K, Rizwan S. Frequency of malocclusion among 12 -15 years old school children in three sectors of Karachi. Pak Oral Dent J 2014 Sep;34(3):510-514.
Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old Nalgonda school children. J Int Oral Health 2013 Dec;5(6): 49-54.
Onyeaso CO. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Nov;126(5):604-607.
Kaur H, Pavithra US, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013 Jul-Dec;3(2):97-102.
Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod 2003 Jun;25(3):273-278.
Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.