Background: Sleep is an indicator of health. Sleep determine many aspects of our life like mood, cognitive functions such as attention and working memory, homeostasis, learning, concentration, etc. Sleep is very essential for the academic progress in college students, whereas most of the sleep-related problems are found in college students worldwide.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the positive effect of sleep special technique (SST) on sleep quality, stress level and quality of life in young healthy yoga practitioners.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 healthy male yoga practitioners were screened and N = 94 were randomly allocated into two groups, experimental group N = 47, and control group N = 47. Experimental group practiced 1 month of (SST), and the control group had no exposure to SST.
Variables Measured: Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), perceived stress scale (PSS), World Health Organization quality of life–BREF (WHOQOL–BREF), and the vedic personality inventory (VPI)
Results: After one month of SST result showed the significant reduction of the global PSQI score (p < 0.001), perceived stress scale (p < 0.001), and considerable improvement in all domains of QOL (p < 0.001), Sattva guna (p < 0.001) in the experimental group compared to the control group.
Conclusion: A one-month course of SST has a significantly positive effect on overall sleep quality, quality of life and perceived stress. The transition towards sattva guna was evident during the course of SST intervention.
World Health Organization. Report on the First Ten Years of the World Health Organization (Internet). Vol. 11. 1958. Available from: http://www.who.int/iris/ handle/10665/88769.
Ancoli-israel S, Ayalon L, Salzman C. Special Section: Sleep disorders in the elderly Sleep in the Elderly: Normal Variations and Common Sleep Disorders. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2008;16(5):279-87.
Brand S, Kirov Rm et al. Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions. Int J Gen Med 2011;4: 425-42.
Rechtschaffen A, et al. Current Perspectives on the Function of Sleep. Perspect Biol Med 1998;41(3):359-90.
Daltrozzo J, Claude L, Tillmann B, Bastuji H, Perrin F, et al. Working memory is partially preserved during sleep. Zang Y-F, editor. PLoS One 2012 Dec;7(12):e50997.
Waterhouse J, Fukuda Y, Morita T. Daily rhythms of the sleep-wake cycle. J Physiol Anthropol. 2012;31(5):1-14.
Alhola P, Polo-Kantola P. Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2007;3(5): 553-67.
Smith-Coggins R, Rosekind MR, Hurd S, Buccino KR, et al. Relationship of day versus night sleep to physician performance and mood. Ann Emerg Med 1994 Nov;24(5):928-34.
Geiger-Brown J, Rogers VE, Trinkoff AM, Kane RL, Bausell RB, Scharf SM, et al. Sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and performance of 12-hour-shift nurses. Chronobiol Int. 2012; 29(2):211-9.
Vail-smith K, Felts WM, Becker C, et al. Relationship between sleep quality and health risk behaviors in undergraduate college students. Coll Stud J. 2009;43(3):924.
Hall EJ. Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology. thirthenth. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015.
Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J, et al. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature. 2005;437(7063): 1257-63.
Braun AR, Balkin TJ, Wesenten NJ, Carson RE, Varga M, Baldwin P, et al. Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle. An H2(15)O PET study. Brain 1997 Jul ;120(Pt 7):1173-97.
Taub JM, Berger RJ, et al. Performance and Mood Following Variations in the Length and Timing of Sleep. Psychophysiology. 1973;10(6):559-70.
Taub JM, et al. Effects of Ad Lib Extended-Delayed Sleep on Sensorimotor Performance, Memory and Sleepiness in the Young Adult. Psychol Behav. 1980;25(1):77-87.
Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, Siegelbaum SA, Hudspeth AJ, et al. Principles of Neural Science. Fifth Edit. Steven A, Siegelbaum SA, Hudspeth AJ, editors. New York: McGraw-Hill Education/Medical; 2012. 1747 p.
Niedermeyer E, Da Silva FL, et al. Electroencephalography: basic principles, clinical applications, and related fields. fifth edition, editor. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005.
Nonoue S, Mashita M, Haraki S, Mikami A, Adachi H, Yatani H, et al. Sleep and Biological Rhythms. 2017. 39-48.
Kamen G, Gabriel D, et al. Essentials of electromyography. Human Kinetics; 2010. Available at https://uk.humankinetics.com/products/essentials-of-electromyography-ebook, accessed on 1st August 2018.
Cartwright RD, Wood E, et al. Adjustment disorders of sleep: The sleep effects of a major stressful event and its resolution. Psychiatry Res 1991 Dec;39(3):199-209.
Lohitashwa R, Kadli N, Kisan R, Sindhuja A, Deshpande D, et al. Effect of stress on sleep quality in young adult medical students : a cross sectional study. Int J Res Med Sci (Internet). 2015;3(12): 3519-23. Available from: www.msjonline.org.
Vranesh JG, Madrid G, Bautista J, Ching P, Hicks RA, et al. Time perspective and sleep problems. Percept Mot Skills. 1999;88(1):23-4.
Lack LC, et al. Delayed sleep and sleep loss in university students. J Am Coll Health 1986 Nov;35(3):105-10.
Soper B, Kelly WE, et al. A preliminary study of sleep length and hallucinations in a college student population. Coll Stud J. 1997;31(2):272-5.
Gilbert SP, Weaver CC. Sleep quality and academic performance in university students: A wake-up call for college psychologists. J College Stud Psychother. 2010;24(4):295-306.
van der Heijden KB, Vermeulen MCM, Donjacour CEHM, Gordijn MCM, Hamburger HL, Meijer AM, et al. Chronic sleep reduction is associated with academic achievement and study concentration in higher education students. J Sleep Res 2018 Apr;27(2):165-74.
Orzech KM, Salafsky DB, Hamilton LA, et al. The state of sleep among college students at a large public University. J Am Coll Heal. 2011;59(7):612-9.
Akerstedt T, Philip P, Capelli A, Kecklund G, et al. Sleep loss and accidents—Work hours, life style, and sleep pathology. Progress in brain research 2011;190:169–88.
Shochat T, et al. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep. Nat Sci Sleep 2012;4:19-31.
Scott JPR, McNaughton LR, Polman RCJ. Effects of sleep deprivation and exercise on cognitive, motor performance and mood. Physiol Behav. 2006;87(2):396-408.
Léger D, Partinen M, Hirshkowitz M, Chokroverty S, Touchette E, Hedner J, et al. Daytime consequences of insomnia symptoms among outpatients in primary care practice: EQUINOX international survey. Sleep Med. 2010;11(10):999-1009.
Orzeł-Gryglewska J, et al. Consequences of sleep deprivation. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2010;23(1):95-114.
Mullington JM, Haack M, Toth M, Serrador JM, Meier-Ewert HK, et al. Cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2009;51(4):294-302.
Deng H-B, Tam T, Zee BC-Y, Chung RY-N, Su X, Jin L, et al. Short Sleep Duration Increases Metabolic Impact in Healthy Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Sleep 2017 Oct 1;40(10).
Vandeputte M, de Weerd A, et al. Sleep disorders and depressive feelings: a global survey with the Beck depression scale. Sleep Med 2003 Jul;4(4):343-5.
Kilic K, Karatas H, Dönmez-Demir B, Eren-Kocak E, Gursoy-Ozdemir Y, Can A, et al. Inadequate brain glycogen or sleep increases spreading depression susceptibility. Ann Neurol 2018 Jan;83(1):61-73.
Lewis GJ, Bates TC, et al. Sex, Sleep Deprivation, and the Anxious Brain. Psychologist 2013 Apr;26(3):194-8.
Bonnet MH, Arand DL, et al. Clinical effects of sleep fragmentation versus sleep deprivation. sleep Med Rev. 2003;7:297-310.
Beccuti G, Pannain S, et al. Sleep and obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011 Jul;14(4):402-12.
Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E, et al. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS Med 2004 Dec;1(3):e62.
Hariharananda P. Kriya yoga: the scientific process of soul culture and the essence of all religions (Internet). Motilal Banarsidass Publishers; 2013 (cited 2017 Apr 22). 291.
Smits. The energy body in yoga – Ekhart Yoga. 2015 (cited 2017 Apr 22). Available from: https://www.ekhartyoga. com/blog/the-energy-body-in-yoga.
Rshikesan P, Subramanya P, Singh D, et al. Sleep quality and body composition variations in obese male adults after 14 weeks of yoga intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Int J Yoga2017;10(3):128.
Ebrahimi M, Guilan-Nejad TN, Pordanjani AF, et al. Effect of yoga and aerobics exercise on sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Sleep Sci 2017;10(2):68-72.
Halpern J, Cohen M, Kennedy G, Reece J, Cahan C, Baharav A, et al. Yoga for improving sleep quality and quality of life for older adults. Altern Ther Health Med 2014;20(3):37–46.
Rao M, Metri KG, Nagarathna R, Nagendra H, et al. Effects of Mind Sound Resonance Technique (Yogic Relaxation) on Psychological States, Sleep Quality, and Cognitive Functions in Female Teachers: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Adv Mind Body Med 2017;31(1):4-9.
Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ, et al. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. psychiatry Res. 1989;28(2):193-213.
Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R, et al. A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. J Health Soc Behav 1983;24(4):385-96.
World Health Organization. WHOQOL-BREF: introduction, administration, scoring and generic version of the assessment: field trial version, december 1996. Geneva; 1996.
Deshpande S, Nagendra HR, Raghuram N, et al. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers. Int J Yoga 2008 Jan;1(1):2-10.
Patra S, Telles S, et al. Positive impact of cyclic meditation on subsequent sleep. Med Sci Monit 2009 Jul;15(7):CR375-81.
Hegde A, Metri K, Chwadhary P, Babu N, Nagendra HR, et al. Effects of yoga on cardiac health sleep quality, mental health and quality of life of elderly individuals with chronic ailments. Voice Res. 2017;6(1):1-5.
Splinter MY. Rotigotine: transdermal dopamine agonist treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. Ann Pharmacother 2007 Feb;41(2):285-295.
Iranzo A, Molinuevo JL, Santamaría J, Serradell M, Martí MJ, Valldeoriola F, Tolosa E. Rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder as an early marker for a neurodegenerative disorder: a descriptive study. Lancet Neurol 2006 Jul;5(7):572-577.
Howell MJ, Schenck CH. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative disease. JAMA Neurol 2015 Jun;72(6):707-712.
Sixel-Döring F, Trautmann E, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. Rapid eye movement sleep behavioral events: a new marker for neurodegeneration in early Parkinson disease? Sleep 2014 Mar;37(3):431-438.
Vibha D, Shukla G, Goyal V, Singh S, Srivastava AK, Behari M. RBD in Parkinson's disease: a clinical case control study from North India. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2011 Jul;113(6):472-476.
Vibha D, Shukla G, Singh S, Goyal V, Srivastava AK, Behari M. Lower prevalence of sleep disturbances in familial versus sporadic Parkinson's disease: a questionnaire based study. J Neurol Sci 2010 Aug;295(1-2):27-30.
Abu Alhaija ES, Al-Nimri KS, Al-Khateeb SN. Self perception of malocclusion among Jordanian school children. Eur J Orthod 2005 Jun;27(3):292-295.
Kolawole KA, Otuyemi DE, Jebode SO, Unweni AA. Awareness for malocclusion and desire for orthodontic treatment need in 11-14year old Nigerian school and their parents. Aust Orthod J 2008 May;24(1):21-25.
Cucalon A 3rd, Smith RJ. Relationship between by adolescent orthodontics patients and performance on psychological tests. Angle Orthod 1990 Summer;60(2):107-114.
Southard KA, Tolley EA, Arheart KL, Hackett-Renner CA, Southard TE. Application of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory in evaluating orthodontic compliance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991 Dec;100(6):553-561.
Kharbanda OP. What is the prevalence of malocclusion in India? Do we know orthodontic treatment needs of our country. J Indian Orthod Soc 1999 Apr-Jun;32(2):33-41.
Siddiqui TA, Shaikh A, Fida M. Agreement between orthodontist and patient perception using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Saudi Dent J 2014 Oct;26(4):156-165.
Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F. Orthodontic treatment needs in an urban Iranian population in epidemiological study of 11-14 years old children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2009 Jun;10(2):69-74.
Grando G, Young AA, Vedovello Filho M, Vedovello SA, Ramirez-Yañez GO. Prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 2008 Summer;19(2):13-16.
Nadim R, Aslam K, Rizwan S. Frequency of malocclusion among 12 -15 years old school children in three sectors of Karachi. Pak Oral Dent J 2014 Sep;34(3):510-514.
Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old Nalgonda school children. J Int Oral Health 2013 Dec;5(6): 49-54.
Onyeaso CO. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Nov;126(5):604-607.
Kaur H, Pavithra US, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013 Jul-Dec;3(2):97-102.
Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod 2003 Jun;25(3):273-278.
Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.