Introduction: Sleep disturbances in children are found to be increasing over the past few years and the knowledge about their risk factors is limited among the medical and dental practitioners. Nutritional status could be one of the contributing factors for sleep problems in children.
Methodology: 500 school going children aged 4 to 10 years were included in the study. The sleep problems were assessed using a validated sleep questionnaire which was filled by the parents of the children and simultaneously the weight of the children was recorded. The data were documented and statistically analyzed.
Results: Sleep problems were found significantly higher in obese children. Also, a significant association was observed between obesity and the following sleep problems, i.e. snoring, observable lapses in breathing sleeps with mouth open and bed wetting.
Conclusion: Obesity can be considered as one of the risk factor for sleep problems in children.
Spruyt K, O'Brien L, Cluydts R, Verleye G, Ferri R. Odds, prevalence and predictors of sleep problems in school-age normal children. Journal of Sleep Research. 2005; 14(2):163- 176.
Cold F, Health E, Disease H, Management P, Conditions S, Problems S et al. Good, Sound Sleep for Your Child [Internet]. WebMD. 2017. Available from: http://www.webmd. com/children/features/good-sound-sleep-for-children#1
Paavonen E, Aronen E, Moilanen I, Piha J, Räsänen E, Tamminen T et al. Sleep problems of school-aged children: a complementary view. Acta Paediatrica. 2000; 89(2):223-228.
Chervin R, Dillon J, Bassetti C, Ganoczy D, Pituch K. Symptoms of Sleep Disorders, Inattention, and Hyperactivity in Children. Sleep. 1997; 20(12):1185-1192.
Wiggs L, Stores G. Severe sleep disturbance and daytime challenging behaviour in children with severe learning disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 1996; 40(6):518-528.
Kahn A, Van de Merckt C, Rebuffat E, Mozin MJ, Sottiaux M, Blum D, Hennart P. Sleep problems in healthy preadolescents. Pediatrics. 1989 Sep 1; 84(3):542-546.
Ipsiroglu O, Fatemi A, Werner I, Paditz E, Schwarz B. Self-reported organic and nonorganic sleep problems in schoolchildren aged 11 to 15 years in vienna. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2002; 31(5):436-442.
Dinsdale H, Ridler C, Ells LJ. A simple guide to classifying body mass index in children. National Obesity Observatory: Oxford, UK. 2011.
Hammam AB, AlFaris E, Shaikh S, Saeed AB. Prevalence of sleep problems and habits in a sample of Saudi primary school children. Annals of Saudi medicine. 2006 Jan 1; 26(1):7.
Owens JA, Maxim R, Nobile C, McGuinn M, Msall M. Parental and self-report of sleep in children with attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Archives of pediatrics and adolescent medicine. 2000 Jun 1; 154(6):549-555.
Chervin RD, Hedger K, Dillon JE, Pituch KJ. Pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ): validity and reliability of scales for sleep-disordered breathing, snoring, sleepiness, and behavioral problems. Sleep medicine. 2000 Feb 1; 1(1):21-32.
WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006). WHO Child Growth Standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, age weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organisation. www.who.int/ childgrowth/standards/weight_for_age/en/index.html.
Redline S, Tishler PV, Schluchter M, Aylor J, Clark K, Graham G. Risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in children: associations with obesity, race, and respiratory problems. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 1999 May 1; 159(5):1527-1532.
Thorton WK, Roberts H. Non surgical management of obstructive apnea patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996; 54:1103-1108.
Mignot E, Lammers GJ, Ripley B, Okun M, Nevsimalova S, Overeem S, Vankova J, Black J, Harsh J, Bassetti C, et al. The role of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measurement in the diagnosis of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias. Arch Neurol 2002 Oct;59(10):1553-1562.
Chen H, Zhao EJ, Zhang W, Lu Y, Liu R, Huang X, Ciesielski- Jones AJ, Justice MA, Cousins DS, Peddada S. Meta-analyses on prevalence of selected Parkinson's nonmotor symptoms before and after diagnosis. Transl Neurodegener 2015 Jan;4(1):1.
Zhang J, Xu CY, Liu J. Meta-analysis on the prevalence of REM sleep behavior disorder symptoms in Parkinson's disease. BMC Neurol 2017 Feb;17(1):23.
Kaynak D, Kiziltan G, Kaynak H, Benbir G, Uysal O. Sleep and sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease before and after dopaminergic treatment. Eur J Neurol 2005 Mar;12(3):199-207.
Ferreira T, Prabhakar S, Kharbanda PS. Sleep disturbances in drug naïve Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and effect of levodopa on sleep. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2014 Oct;17(4):416-419.
Diederich NJ, Rufra O, Pieri V, Hipp G, Vaillant M. Lack of polysomnographic Non-REM sleep changes in early Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2013 Sep;28(10):1443-1446.
Mao ZJ, Liu CC, JI SQ, Yang QM, Ye HX, Han HY, Xue Z. Clinical characteristics of sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol Med Sci 2017 Feb;37(1):100-104.
Rye DB, Bliwise DL, Dihenia B, Gurecki P. Daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease. J Sleep Res 2000 Mar;9(1):63-69.
Frucht S, Rogers JD, Greene PE, Gordon MF, Fahn S. Falling asleep at the wheel: motor vehicle mishaps in persons taking pramipexole and ropinirole. Neurology 1999 Jun;52(9): 1908-1910.
Cochen De Cock V, Bayard S, Jaussent I, Charif M, Grini M, Langenier MC, Yu H, Lopez R, Geny C, Carlander B, et al. Daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease: a reappraisal. PLoS One 2014 Sep;9(9):e107278.
Tholfsen LK, Larsen JP, Schulz J, Tysnes OB, Gjerstad MD. Development of excessive daytime sleepiness in early Parkinson disease. Neurology 2015 Jul;85(2):162-168.
Diederich NJ, Vaillant M, Leischen M, Mancuso G, Golinval S, Nati R, Schlesser M. Sleep apnea syndrome in Parkinson's disease. A case-control study in 49 patients. Mov Disord 2005 Nov;20(11):1413-1418.
Cochen De Cock V, Abouda M, Leu S, Oudiette D, Roze E, Vidailhet M, Similowski T, Arnulf I. Is obstructive sleep apnea a problem in Parkinson's disease? Sleep Med 2010 Mar;11(3):247-252.
Yong MH, Fook-Chong S, Pavanni R, Lim LL, Tan EK. Case control polysomnographic studies of sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease. PLoS One 2011 Jul;6(7):e22511.
Trotti LM, Bliwise DL. No increased risk of obstructive sleep apnea in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2010 Oct;25(13):2246-2249.
Zeng J, Wei M, Li T, Chen W, Feng Y, Shi R, Song Y, Zheng W, Ma W. Risk of obstructive sleep apnea in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 2013 Dec;8(12):e82091.
da Silva-Júnior FP, do Prado GF, Barbosa ER, Tufik S, Togeiro SM. Sleep disordered breathing in Parkinson's disease: a critical appraisal. Sleep Med Rev 2014 Apr;18(2):173-178.
Yeh NC, Tien KJ, Yang CM, Wang JJ, Weng SF. Increased risk of Parkinson's disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a population-based propensity score-matched longitudinal follow-up study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Jan;95(2):e2293.
Sheu JJ, Lee HC, Lin HC, Kao LT, Chung SD. A 5-year followup study on the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and Parkinson disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2015 Dec;11(12):1403- 1408 (2015).
Videnovic A. Management of sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 2017 May;32(5):659-668.
Neikrug AB, Liu L, Avanzino JA, Maglione JE, Natarajan L, Bradley L, Maugeri A, Corey-Bloom J, Palmer BW, Loredo JS, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure improves sleep and daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson disease and sleep apnea. Sleep 2014 Jan;37(1):177-185.
Tan EK, Lum SY, Wong MC. Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci 2002 Apr;196(1-2):33-36.
Ondo WG, Vuong KD, Jankovic J. Exploring the relationship between Parkinson disease and restless legs syndrome. Arch Neurol 2002 Mar;59(3):421-424.
Krishnan PR, Bhatia M, Behari M. Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease: a case-controlled study. Mov Disord 2003 Feb;18(2):181-185.
Nomura T, Inoue Y, Miyake M, Yasui K, Nakashima K. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of restless legs syndrome in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2006 Mar;21(3):380-384.
Gómez-Esteban JC, Zarranz JJ, Tijero B, Velasco F, Barcena J, Rouco I, Lezcano E, Lachen MC, Jauregui A, Ugarte A. Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2007 Oct;22(13):1912-1916.
Loo HV, Tan EK. Case-control study of restless legs syndrome and quality of sleep in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci 2008 Mar;266(1-2):145-149.
Peralta CM, Frauscher B, Seppi K, Wolf E, Wenning GK, Högl B, Poewe W. Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2009 Oct;24(14):2076-2080.
Verbaan D, van Rooden SM, van Hilten JJ, Rijsman RM. Prevalence and clinical profile of restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2010 Oct;25(13):2142-2147.
Angelini M, Negrotti A, Marchesi E, Bonavina G, Calzetti S. A study of the prevalence of restless legs syndrome in previously untreated Parkinson's disease patients: absence of co-morbid association. J Neurol Sci 2011 Nov;310(1-2):286-288.
Gjerstad MD, Tysnes OB, Larsen JP. Increased risk of leg motor restlessness but not RLS in early Parkinson disease. Neurology 2011 Nov;77(22):1941-1946.
Bhalsing K, Suresh K, Muthane UB, Pal PK. Prevalence and profile of Restless Legs Syndrome in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders: a case-control study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013 Apr;19(4):426-430.
Fereshtehnejad SM, Shafieesabet M, Shahidi GA, Delbari A, Lökk J. Restless legs syndrome in patients with Parkinson's disease: a comparative study on prevalence, clinical characteristics, quality of life and nutritional status. Acta Neurol Scand 2015 Apr;131(4):211-218.
Moccia M, Erro R, Picillo M, Santangelo G, Spina E, Allocca R, Longo K, Amboni M, Palladino R, Assante R, et al. A four-year longitudinal study on restless legs syndrome in Parkinson disease. Sleep 2016 Feb;39(2):405-412.
Högl B, Stefani A. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in patients with movement disorders: specific considerations. Mov Disord 2017 May;32(5):669-681.
Allen RP, Picchietti D, Hening WA, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Montplaisi J; Restless Legs Syndrome Diagnosis and Epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health; International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Restless legs syndrome: diagnostic criteria, special considerations, and epidemiology: a report from the restless legs syndrome diagnosis and epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Sleep Med 2003 Mar;4(2):101-119.
Szatmari S Jr, Bereczki D, Fornadi K, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kovesdy CP, Molnar MZ. Association of restless legs syndrome with incident Parkinson disease. Sleep 2017 Feb;40(2): zsw065.
Winkelman JW, Armstrong MJ, Allen RP, Chaudhuri KR, Ondo W, Trenkwalder C, Zee PC, Gronseth GS, Gloss D, Zesiewicz T. Practice guideline summary: treatment of restless legs syndrome in adults: report of the Guideline Development Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2016 Dec;87(24):2585-2593.
Splinter MY. Rotigotine: transdermal dopamine agonist treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. Ann Pharmacother 2007 Feb;41(2):285-295.
Iranzo A, Molinuevo JL, Santamaría J, Serradell M, Martí MJ, Valldeoriola F, Tolosa E. Rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder as an early marker for a neurodegenerative disorder: a descriptive study. Lancet Neurol 2006 Jul;5(7):572-577.
Howell MJ, Schenck CH. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative disease. JAMA Neurol 2015 Jun;72(6):707-712.
Sixel-Döring F, Trautmann E, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. Rapid eye movement sleep behavioral events: a new marker for neurodegeneration in early Parkinson disease? Sleep 2014 Mar;37(3):431-438.
Vibha D, Shukla G, Goyal V, Singh S, Srivastava AK, Behari M. RBD in Parkinson's disease: a clinical case control study from North India. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2011 Jul;113(6):472-476.
Vibha D, Shukla G, Singh S, Goyal V, Srivastava AK, Behari M. Lower prevalence of sleep disturbances in familial versus sporadic Parkinson's disease: a questionnaire based study. J Neurol Sci 2010 Aug;295(1-2):27-30.
Abu Alhaija ES, Al-Nimri KS, Al-Khateeb SN. Self perception of malocclusion among Jordanian school children. Eur J Orthod 2005 Jun;27(3):292-295.
Kolawole KA, Otuyemi DE, Jebode SO, Unweni AA. Awareness for malocclusion and desire for orthodontic treatment need in 11-14year old Nigerian school and their parents. Aust Orthod J 2008 May;24(1):21-25.
Cucalon A 3rd, Smith RJ. Relationship between by adolescent orthodontics patients and performance on psychological tests. Angle Orthod 1990 Summer;60(2):107-114.
Southard KA, Tolley EA, Arheart KL, Hackett-Renner CA, Southard TE. Application of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory in evaluating orthodontic compliance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991 Dec;100(6):553-561.
Kharbanda OP. What is the prevalence of malocclusion in India? Do we know orthodontic treatment needs of our country. J Indian Orthod Soc 1999 Apr-Jun;32(2):33-41.
Siddiqui TA, Shaikh A, Fida M. Agreement between orthodontist and patient perception using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Saudi Dent J 2014 Oct;26(4):156-165.
Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F. Orthodontic treatment needs in an urban Iranian population in epidemiological study of 11-14 years old children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2009 Jun;10(2):69-74.
Grando G, Young AA, Vedovello Filho M, Vedovello SA, Ramirez-Yañez GO. Prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 2008 Summer;19(2):13-16.
Nadim R, Aslam K, Rizwan S. Frequency of malocclusion among 12 -15 years old school children in three sectors of Karachi. Pak Oral Dent J 2014 Sep;34(3):510-514.
Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old Nalgonda school children. J Int Oral Health 2013 Dec;5(6): 49-54.
Onyeaso CO. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Nov;126(5):604-607.
Kaur H, Pavithra US, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013 Jul-Dec;3(2):97-102.
Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod 2003 Jun;25(3):273-278.
Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.