Strategies for integrating Sleep Medicine in Dental Practice and Postgraduate Training
Abhijeet Kadu, Balakrishnan Jayan, Reena R Kumar, Oommen Nainan, Probod K Chattopadhyay
Dental practice, Postgraduate training, Sleep medicine
Citation Information :
Kadu A, Jayan B, Kumar RR, Nainan O, Chattopadhyay PK. Strategies for integrating Sleep Medicine in Dental Practice and Postgraduate Training. Indian Sleep Med 2017; 12 (3):33-38.
Dentistry's entry into the management of upper airway sleep disorders has led to the development of a new specialty, i.e., dental sleep medicine. This specialty involves oral appliance therapy (OAT) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring, maxillomandibular advancement surgeries to increase upper airway volume, assessment of craniofacial risk factors, cephalometric studies for craniofacial and airway evaluation, and prevention of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. Dentists trained in dental sleep medicine, orthodontists, and maxillofacial surgeons are recognized members of interdisciplinary team to manage upper airway sleep disorders. So it is of paramount importance for dental students and orthodontists to familiarize with the basic knowledge of upper airway sleep disorders and its management in order to contribute effectively in managing those affected patients. There is need to integrate dental sleep medicine in postgraduate orthodontic curriculum. The current status of this new and challenging discipline in India, the Armed Forces Medical College and Army Dental Centre (Research and Referral) experience, and strategies to build capacity are discussed in this article.
Udwadia ZF, Doshi AV, Lonkar SG, Singh CI. Prevalence of sleep disordered breathing and sleep apnoea in middle aged urban Indian men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004 Jan;169(2):168-173.
Lieberman P, Crelin E. On the speech of Neanderthal. Linguist Inq 1971;11(2):203-232.
Lavigne, GJ.; Morin, CM.; Carra, CM. The nature of sleep. In Lavigne GJ, Cistulli PA, Smith MT, editors. Sleep medicine for dentists—a practical overview. Hanover Park (IL): Quintessence Publishing; 2009. pp. 3-9.
Attanasio, R.; Bailey, DR. Medical and dental conditions related to sleep-related breathing disorders. In: Attanasio R, Bailey DR, editors. Dental management of sleep disorders. 1st ed. Ames (IA): Wiley Blackwell publishing; 2010. pp. 91-110.
Lopez-Jimenez F, Sert Kuniyoshi FH, Gami A, Somers VK. Obstructive sleep apnea: implications for cardiac and vascular disease. Chest 2008 Mar;133(3):793-804.
Somers VK, White DP, Amin R, Abraham WT, Costa F, Culebras A, Daniels S, Floras JS, Hunt CE, Olson LJ, et al. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: an American Heart Association/American college of scientific statement from the American heart association council for high blood pressure research professional education committee, Council on clinical cardiology, stroke council and council for cardiovascular nursing. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008 Aug;52(8):686-717.
Pingitore G, Chrobak V, Petrie J. The social and psychological factors of bruxism. J Prosthet Dent 1991 Mar;65(3):443-446.
National Center on Sleep Disorders Research. Your guide to healthy sleep. Bethesda (MD): National Heart Lung and Blood Institutes of Health; 2005. p. 2.
Ohayon MM, Li KK, Guilleminault C. Risk factors for sleep bruxism in general population. Chest 2001 Jan;119(1):53-61.
Watanabe T, Isono S, Tanaka A, Tanzawa H, Nishino T. Contribution of body habitus and craniofacial characteristics to segmental closing pressure of the passive pharynx in patients with sleep disordered breathing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002 Jan;165(2):260-265.
Hoehema A, Hovinga B, Stegenga B, De Bont LG. Craniofacial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea: a cephalometric analysis. J Oral Rehabil 2003 Jul;30(7):690-696.
Jayan B, Prasad BNBM, Atul K, Kharbanda OP, Roy Chowdhury SK, Gupta SH. The role of cephalometric analysis in obese and non obese urban Indian adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a pilot study. Indian J Sleep Med 2007 Mar;2(2):59-63.
Hang WA. Obstructive sleep apnea: dentistry's unique role in longevity enhancement. J Am Orthod Assoc 2007 Spring;7(2):28-32.
American Sleep Disorder Association Report. Practice parameters for the treatments of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea with oral devices. Sleep 1995 Jul;18(6):511-513.
Lowe, AA. Dental appliances for the treatments of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W, editors. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia (PA): Saunders; 2000. pp. 929-939.
Lim J, Lasserson TJ, Fleetnam J, Wrignt J. Oral appliance for obstructive sleep apnea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006 Jan;1:CD004435.
Ferguson KA, Ono T, Lowe AA, Keenan SP, Fleetham JA. A randomized cross over study of an oral appliance vs nasal continuous positive airway pressure in treatment of mild moderate sleep apnea. Chest 1996 May;109(5):269-275.
Li KK, Riley RW, Powell NB, Guilleminault C. Maxillomandibular advancement for persistent obstructive sleep apnea after phase I surgery in patients without maxillomandibular deficiency. Laryngoscope 2000 Oct;110(10 Pt 1):1684-1688.
Ivanhoe JR, Attanasio R. Sleep disorders and oral devices. Dental Clin North Am 2001 Oct;45(4):735-758.
Learn Dental Sleep Medicine. www.sleepgroupsolutions.com. Accessed on June 5, 2017.
Menon S, Roy Chowdhury SK, Vasant MR. Distraction osteogenesis in the management of obstructive sleep apnea. Indian J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003;18(3):25-29.
Jayan B, Prasad BN, Bhattacharyya D, Rajput AK, Dhiman RK. Management of case of severe obstructive sleep apnea with acrylic Herbst splint appliance: a case report. Indian J Sleep Med 2006;1(3):157-160.
Jayan B, Prasad BN, Bhattacharyya D, Rajput AK, Dhiman RK, Thampi PS. Management of obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances: our experience. Indian J Sleep Med 2006 Jan;1(4):204-207.
Roy Chowdhury SK, Jayan B, Menon PS, Prasad BN, Ravishankar K. Management of obstructive sleep apnea and non apneic snoring with maxilla mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Indian J Sleep Med 2007;2(3):101-108.
Jayan B, Prasad BN, Kamat UR, Kharbanda OP, Bhattacharyya D. Therapeutic efficacy of Thorton adjustable positioner in management of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea: a pilot study. Indian J Sleep Med 2008;3(3):97-101.
Jayan B, Prasad BN, Dhiman RK. Role of oral appliances in management of sleep disorders. Med J Armed Forces India 2009 Apr;65(2):123-127.
Nainan O, Jayan B, Chopra SS, Barthwal MS, Mukherjee M. Predictive morphometric model value estimation and its correlation with severity of sleep apnea in mixed Indian population: a pilot study. Indian J Sleep Med 2012 Jan;7(2):48-54.
Guilleminault C, Quo S, Huynh NT, Li K. Orthodontic expansion treatment and adenotonsillectomy in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in prepubertal children. Sleep 2008 Jul;31(7):953-957.
Pirelli P, Saponara M, De Rosa C, Fanucci E. Orthodontics and obstructive sleep apnea in children. Med Clin North Am 2010 May;94(3):517-529.
Ramar K, Dort LC, Katz SG, Lettieri CJ, Harrod CG, Thomas SM, Chervin RD. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliance therapy: an update for 2015. J Dent Sleep Med 2015 Jul;11(7):773-827.
Sharma SK, Katoch VM, Mohan A, Kadhiravan T, Elavarasi A, Ragesh R, Nischal N, Sethi P, Behera D, Bhatia M, et al. for Indian Initiative on Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (INOSA) Guidelines Working Group. Consensus & evidence-based INOSA guidelines 2014 (first edition). Indian J Med Res 2014 Sep;140(3):451-468.
Sahoo NK, Jayan B, Chopra SS, Ramakrishnan S, Kochar G. Evaluation of upper airway dimensional changes and hyoid position following mandibular advancement in skeletal Class II cases: a cephalometric study. J Craniofac Surg 2012 Nov;23(6):36-41.
Inoue TK, Ikezaki K, Sasazuki T, Matsushima T, Fukui M. Analysis of class II genes of human leukocyte antigen in patients with moyamoya disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1997 Oct;99(Suppl 2):S234-S237.
Han H, Pyo CW, Yoo DS, Huh PW, Cho KS, Kim DS. Associations of Moyamoya patients with HLA class I and class II alleles in the Korean population. J Korean Med Sci 2003 Dec;18(6):876-880.
Sakurai K, Horiuchi Y, Ikeda H, Ikezaki K, Yoshimoto T, Fukui M, Arinami T. A novel susceptibility locus for moyamoya disease on chromosome 8q23. J Hum Genet 2004;49(5):278-281.
Kodama N, Suzuki J. Cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. III Report—The study on the aging of the perforating branches and the possibility of collateral pathway. Neurol Med Chir 1974;14 Pt 1:55-67.
Iwama T, Morimoto M, Hashimoto N, Goto Y, Todaka T, Sawada M. Mechanism of intracranial rebleeding in moyamoya disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1997 Oct;99 (Suppl 2): S187-S190.
Irikura K, Miyasaka Y, Kurata A, Tanaka R, Fujii K, Yada K, Kan S. A source of haemorrhage in adult patients with moyamoya disease: the significance of tributaries from the choroidal artery. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1996;138(11): 1282-1286.
Kawaguchi S, Sakaki T, Morimoto T, Kakizaki T, Kamada K. Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease: a review of 111 cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1996;138(11):1287-1294.
Kuroda S, Houkin K, Kamiyama H, Abe H. Effects of surgical revascularization on peripheral artery aneurysms in moyamoya disease: report of three cases. Neurosurgery 2001 Aug;49(2):463-467.
Seol HJ, Wang KC, Kim SK, Hwang YS, Kim KJ, Cho BK. Headache in pediatric moyamoya disease: a review of 204 consecutive cases. J Neurosurg 2005 Nov;103(5 Suppl): 439-442.
Olesen J, Friberg L, Olsen TS, Andersen AR, Lassen NA, Hansen PE, Karle A. Ischaemia-induced (symptomatic) migraine attacks may be more frequent than migraine-induced ischaemic insults. Brain 1993 Feb;116(Pt 1):187-202.
Kossorotoff M. Cognitive decline in moyamoya: influence of chronic cerebral hypoxia, history of stroke, or comorbid conditions? Dev Med Child Neurol 2012 Jan;54(1):4-7.
Hogan AM, Pit-ten Cate IM, Vargha-Khadem F, Prengler M, Kirkham FJ. Physiological correlates of intellectual function in children with sickle cell disease: hypoxaemia, hyperaemia and brain infarction. Dev Sci 2006 Jul;9(4):379-387.
Ibrahimi D, Tamargo RJ, Ahn ES. Moyamoya disease in children. Childs Nerv Syst 2010 Oct;26(10):1297-1308.
Pandey P, Stephens TB, Steinberg GK. Patients with moyamoya disease presenting with movement disorder. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2010 Dec;6(6):559-566.
Zheng W, Wanibuchi M, Onda T, Liu H, Koyanagi I, Fujimori K, Houkin K. A case of moyamoya disease presenting with chorea. Childs Nerv Syst 2006 Mar;22(3):274-278.
Jayakumar PN, Vasudev MK, Srikanth SG. Posterior circulation abnormalities in moyamoya disease: a radiological study. Neurol India 1999 Jun;47(2):112-117.
Kelly ME, Bell-Stephens TE, Marks MP, Do HM, Steinberg GK. Progression of unilateral moyamoya disease: a clinical series. Cerebrovasc Dis 2006;22(2-3):109-115.
Houkin K, Abe H, Yoshimoto T, Takahashi A. Is “unilateral” moyamoya disease different from moyamoya disease? J Neurosurg 1996 Nov;85(5):772-776.
Naveen Kumar B, Mohapatra A, Ramesh N, Ravishankar TL. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 12-15 years old school children in Davangere, Karnataka, India. Pak Oral Dent J 2010;30(1):181-185.
de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A. The relationship between normative orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003 Dec;31(6):426-436.
de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A, Tsakos G, O'Brien KD. Oral health related quality of life and the IOTN index as predictors of children's perceived needs and acceptance for orthodontic treatment. Br Dent J 2008 Apr;204(7):1-5.
Al-Sarheed M, Bedi R, Hunt NP. Orthodontic treatment need and self perception of 11-16 year old Saudi Arabian children with a sensory impairment attending special schools. J Orthod 2003 Mar;30(1):39-44.
Kerosuo H, Al Enezi S, Kerosuo E, Abdulkarim E. Association between normative and self perceived orthodontic treatment need among Arab high school students. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Mar;125(3):373-378.
Ghijselings I, Brosens V, Williams G, Fieuws S, Clijmans M, Lemiere J. Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need in 11- to 16-year-old children. Eur J Orthod 2014 Apr;36(2):179-185.
Onyeaso CO, Arowojolu MO. Perceived, desired and normatively determined treatment need among orthodontically untreated Nigerian adolescents. West Afr J Med 2003 Jan- Mar;22(1):5-9.
Jung MH. Quality of life and self-esteem of female orthognathic surgery patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016 Jun;74(6):1240.e1-1240.e7.
Abu Alhaija ES, Al-Nimri KS, Al-Khateeb SN. Self perception of malocclusion among Jordanian school children. Eur J Orthod 2005 Jun;27(3):292-295.
Kolawole KA, Otuyemi DE, Jebode SO, Unweni AA. Awareness for malocclusion and desire for orthodontic treatment need in 11-14year old Nigerian school and their parents. Aust Orthod J 2008 May;24(1):21-25.
Cucalon A 3rd, Smith RJ. Relationship between by adolescent orthodontics patients and performance on psychological tests. Angle Orthod 1990 Summer;60(2):107-114.
Southard KA, Tolley EA, Arheart KL, Hackett-Renner CA, Southard TE. Application of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory in evaluating orthodontic compliance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991 Dec;100(6):553-561.
Kharbanda OP. What is the prevalence of malocclusion in India? Do we know orthodontic treatment needs of our country. J Indian Orthod Soc 1999 Apr-Jun;32(2):33-41.
Siddiqui TA, Shaikh A, Fida M. Agreement between orthodontist and patient perception using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Saudi Dent J 2014 Oct;26(4):156-165.
Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F. Orthodontic treatment needs in an urban Iranian population in epidemiological study of 11-14 years old children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2009 Jun;10(2):69-74.
Grando G, Young AA, Vedovello Filho M, Vedovello SA, Ramirez-Yañez GO. Prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 2008 Summer;19(2):13-16.
Nadim R, Aslam K, Rizwan S. Frequency of malocclusion among 12 -15 years old school children in three sectors of Karachi. Pak Oral Dent J 2014 Sep;34(3):510-514.
Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old Nalgonda school children. J Int Oral Health 2013 Dec;5(6): 49-54.
Onyeaso CO. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Nov;126(5):604-607.
Kaur H, Pavithra US, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013 Jul-Dec;3(2):97-102.
Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod 2003 Jun;25(3):273-278.
Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.