Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder with significant associated morbidity. Though continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been the treatment of choice, it has poor acceptability. Alternative therapies include surgery or oral appliances. A meticulous assessment of the airway is needed before these alternative therapies can be tailored to their specific needs. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) provides a detailed visual description of the sites of upper airway obstruction and may conclusively lead to a better choice of therapy resulting in the wider use of this endoscopic examination in dedicated sleep centers. This review discusses the indication, procedure, and the controversies regarding DISE.
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