Sleep of women differs in many respects from that of men. Women go through various phases in their life, each of these is associated with a unique hormonal milieu, which can affect the sleep significantly. Differences in the sleep of females and males have been documented across multiple studies. Various hormonal and physiological factors, as well as psychological and sociological factors, are thought to affect women\'s sleep.
Williams RL, Karacan J, Hursch CJ. Electroencephalography of Human Sleep: Clinical Applications. 1974. Wiley, New York.
Walseleben JA. Women and sleep. In Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2011, Vol.98, Sleep Disorders, part 1. Elsevier.
Walsleben JA, Kapur VK, Newman AB et al. Sleep and reported daytime sleepiness in normal subjects: the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep 2004; 27(2):293–298.
Kobayashi R, Kohsaka M, Fukuda N et al. Gender differences in sleep of middle-aged individuals. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998;52(2):861–867.
Reyner LA, Horne JA. Gender and age-related differences in sleep determined by home-recorded sleep logs and actimetry from 400 adults. 1995; Sleep 18(5):391 and Sleep 18(2):127–134.
Moline ML, Broch L, Zak R, Gross V. Sleep in women across the life cycle from adulthood through menopause. Sleep Med Rev 2003;7(2):155–77.
Zambotti M, Willoughby AR, Sassoon SA, Colrain IM, Baker FC. Menstrual Cycle-Related Variation in Physiological Sleep in Women in the Early Menopausal Transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100:2918–2926.
Parry BL, Martýnez LF, Maurer EL, Lopez, Sorenson D, Meliska CJ. Sleep, rhythms and women's mood. Part I. Menstrual cycle, pregnancy and postpartum. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2006;10:129–144.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
Parry BL, Berga SL, Mostofi N et al. Plasma melatonin circadian rhythms during the menstrual cycle and after light therapy in dysphoric disorder and normal control subjects. J Biol Rhythms 1997;12:47–64.
Parry BL, Martinez LF, Maurer EL et al. Sleep, rhythms and women's mood. Part I. Menstrual cycle, pregnancy and postpartum. Sleep Med Rev 2006;10:129–144.
Baker FC, Driver HS, Rogers GG, Paiker J, Mitchell D. High nocturnal body temperatures and disturbed sleep in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Am J Physiol. 1999; 277(6 Pt 1):E1013-21.
Vgontzas AN, Legro RS, Bixler EO, Grayev A, Kales A, Chrousos GP. Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with obstructive sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness: role of insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86(2):517-520.
Kimura M, Zhang SQ, Inoue S. Pregnancy-associated sleep changes in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1996; 271(Pt 2):R1063– R1069.
Lee KA, Zaffke ME, McEnany G. Parity and sleep patterns during and after pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 95:14– 18.
Feinsilver SH, Hertz G. Respiration during sleep in pregnancy. Clin Chest Med. 1992; 13:637–644.
Brunner DP, Munch M, Biedermann K, Huch R, Huch A, Borbely AA. Changes in sleep and sleep electroencephalogram during pregnancy. Sleep. 1994; 17:576–582.
Soderpalm AH, Lindsey S, Purdy RH, Hauger R, Wit de H. Administration of progesterone produces mild sedative-like effects in men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004; 29:339– 354.
Santiago JR, Nolledo MS, Kinzler W, Santiago TV. Sleep and sleep disorders in pregnancy. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 134:396–408.
Lee KA. Alterations in sleep during pregnancy and postpartum: a review of 30 years of research. Sleep Med Rev. 1998; 2:231–242.
Hanif S. Frequency and pattern of urinary complaints among pregnant women. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006; 16:514–517.
O'Keeffe M, St-Onge MP. Sleep duration, and disorders in pregnancy: implications for glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcomes. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013; 37(6):. doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.142.
Qiu C, Enquobahrie D, Frederick IO, Abetew D, Williams MA. Glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes risk in relation to sleep duration and snoring during pregnancy: a pilot study. BMC Women's Health. 2010; 10:17.
Parry BL, Martýnez LF, Maurer EL, Lopez AM, Sorenson D, Meliska CJ. Sleep, rhythms and women's mood. Part II. Menopause. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2006; 10, 197–208.
Sharma S, Kavuru M. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview. International Journal of Endocrinology 2010; Article ID 270832, doi:10.1155/2010/270832
Knutson KL, Spiegel K, Penev P, Cauter EV. The Metabolic Consequences of Sleep Deprivation. Sleep Med Rev. 2007; 11(3): 163–178.
Anothaisintawee T, Reutrakul S, Cauter EV, Thakkinstian A. Sleep disturbances compared to traditional risk factors for diabetes development: Systematic review and metaanalysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2016; 30:11-24.
Calandra-Buonaura G, Provini F, Guaraldi P, Plazzi G, Cortelli P. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions and sleep disorders. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2016; 26:43-56