Indian Journal of Sleep Medicine

Register      Login

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2015 ) > List of Articles


Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with metabolic syndrome: a hospital-based study

Riyaz Moideen, Uma Maheswari Krishnaswamy, Radhika K

Keywords : Metabolic syndrome, Obstructive sleep apnea, Syndrome Z

Citation Information : Moideen R, Krishnaswamy UM, K R. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with metabolic syndrome: a hospital-based study. Indian Sleep Med 2015; 10 (1):29-36.

DOI: 10.5005/IJSM-10-1-29

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-01-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2015; The Author(s).


Background: This hospital-based study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Consecutive patients with metabolic syndrome were included. After relevant clinical and laboratory work-up, subjects were screened for symptoms of OSA and administered Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Patients with suggestive symptoms and ESS score of e ”10 underwent polysomnography. Results: Ninety-four patients with metabolic syndrome (53 males, 41 females) were included. Thirty-five (37.2%) patients with high clinical probability of OSA underwent sleep study; of these, 32 had OSA. Thus, the prevalence of OSA was 34% in patients with metabolic syndrome. The values of body mass index and neck circumference were significantly higher in patients with OSA compared to those who had metabolic syndrome alone. Conclusion: Early detection and treatment of OSA in metabolic syndrome can prevent development of systemic consequences due to the combined effect of both diseases.

PDF Share
  1. Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 2005;365:1415–28.
  2. Reaven G. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988;37:1595–1607.
  3. Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E,Tuomilehto J, Salonen JT. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA 2002;288:2709–16.
  4. Tasali E, Ip MSM. Obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome alterations in glucose metabolism and inflammation. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2008;5:207–17.
  5. Parish JM, Adam T, Facchiano L. Relationship of metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(5):467–72.
  6. Sharma SK, Sreenivas V. Are metabolic syndrome, obstructive sleep apnoea and syndrome Z sequential? A hypothesis. Indian J Med Res 2010;131:455–8.
  7. Alberti K, George MM, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome-a new worldwide definition. Lancet 2005;366(9491):1059–62.
  8. Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force. Sleep 1999;22(5):667–89.
  9. Sharma SK, Kumpawat S, Banga A, Goel A. The prevalence and risk factors of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a population of New Delhi, India. Chest2006;130:149–56.
  10. Coughlin SR, Mawdsley L, Mugarza JA, Calverley PM, Wilding JP. Obstructive sleep apnoea is independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Eur Heart J 2004;25:735–41.
  11. Gruber A, Horwood F, Sithole J, Ali N, Idris I. Obstructive sleep apnoea is independently associated with the metabolic syndrome but not insulin resistance state. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2006;5:22.
  12. Lam JCM, Lam B, Lam CL,Fong D, Wang JK, Tse HF et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and the metabolic syndrome in community-based Chinese subjects in Hong Kong. Resp Med 2006;100(6):980–7.
  13. Sasanabe R, Banno K, Otake K, Hasegawa R, Usui K, Morita M et al. Metabolic syndrome in Japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Hypertens Res 2006;29:315–22.
  14. Cho N, Joo S, Kim J,Abbott RD, Kim J, Kimm K et al. Relation of habitual snoring with components of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. Diabetes Res. ClinPract 2006;71:256– 63.
  15. Ip MSM, Lam B, Ng MMT, Lam WK, Tsang KWT, Lam KSL. Obstructive sleep apnea is independently associated with insulin resistance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;165:670–6.
  16. Vgontzas AN. Sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness and fatigue: relation to visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercytokinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(3):1151–8.
  17. Udwadia ZF, Doshi AV, LonkarSG, Singh CI. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing and sleep apnea in middle-aged urban Indian men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169:168–73.
  18. Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M, Skatrud J. Prospective study of disordered breathing and hypertension. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1378–84.
  19. Nieto FJ, Young TB, Lind BK, Shahar E, Samet JM, Redline S, et al. Sleep disordered breathing and hypertension: sleep heart health study. JAMA 2000; 286:1819–26.
  20. Chou YT, Chuang LP, Li HY, Fu JY, Lin SW, Yang CT et al. Hyperlipidaemia in patients with sleep-related breathing disorders: prevalence and risk factors. Indian J Med Res 2010;131:121–5.
  21. Bixler E, Vgontzas A, Ten Have T, Tyson K, Kales A. Effects of age on sleep apnea in men. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 1998;157:144–8
  22. Young T, Shahar E, Nieto FJ, Redline S, Newman AB, Gottlieb DJ, et al. Predictors of sleep-disordered breathing in community dwelling adults: the Sleep Heart Health Study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:893–900.
  23. Young T, Evans L, Finn L, Palta M. Estimation of the clinically diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middleaged men and women. Sleep 1997;20(9):705–6.
  24. Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J. Longitudinal study of weight change and sleep disordered breathing. JAMA 2000;284:3015–21.
  25. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Metabolic disturbances in obesity versus sleep apnoea: the importance of visceral obesity and insulin resistance. J Intern Med 2003;254:32–44.
  26. Lavie P. Incidence of sleep apnea in a presumably healthy working population: a significant relationship with excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep 1983;6(4):312–18.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.